FROM THE HISTORY OF LASER CREATION

I. M. Belousova


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Article in Russian


Abstract

The paper briefly describes the history of formation of a new science direction - quantum electronics, associated with the discovery of masers and lasers by scientists from the USA (Ch. Townes) and the USSR (N.G. Basov and A. M. Prokhorov). The world's first ruby laser designed by T. Maiman is described. Some historical events devoted to creation and research of lasers are given in which the author of the paper as well as research workers from Vavilov State Optical Institute, ITMO University and LOMO have taken direct part in the development of solid-state and gas lasers (helium-neon, photodissociation, CO2-lasers) and laser optical systems. Contribution of researchers from Vavilov State Optical Institute, LOMO and ITMO University to large-scale programs on development of lasers for laser nuclear fusion, laser weapons and “Phobos” program is shown. The paper deals in brief with new issues of development and application of lasers, mainly, within the project of laser orbital space station of the future, for the conversion of solar energy into laser radiation. Description of idea of solar energy transformation by fullerene-oxygen laser is presented. The patent for it has been taken out by Vavilov State Optical Institute. Developed fullerene-oxygen-iodine laser and laser structure models for industrial applications and solar energy conversion into laser radiation are described. Parameters for hypothetical laser-optical system of the future space station are given.


Keywords: maser, ruby laser, gas helium-neon laser, laser weapons, photo dissociation laser, CO2 - laser, fullerene-oxygeniodine laser, solar pumping

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