doi: 10.17586/2226-1494-2016-16-2-271-276


E. V. Avramenko, N. P. Belov, P. V. Odnovorchenko, A. S. Sherstobitova, A. D. Yaskov

Read the full article  ';
Article in Russian

For citation: Avramenko E.V., Belov N.P., Odnovorchenko P.V., Sherstobitova A.S., Yaskov A.D. Optical properties of carbamide aqueous solutions. Scientific and Technical Journal of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics, 2016, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 271–276. doi:10.17586/2226-1494-2016-16-2-271-276


Subject of Research. The paper presents the results of measurements of refractometric properties (refractive index n, its temperature factor dn/dt) and the ultraviolet spectral absorption in carbonic acid diamide aqueous solutions (carbamide) depending on solid residue mass fraction md = 0-50 % and on temperaturet = 10-70 °C.Method of Research. Laboratory methods ofliquid-phase medium refractometry and ultraviolet spectrophotometry were applied for the research. We carried out computational modeling of electronic states spectrum for the carbonic acid diamide molecule and theoretical calculation of the fundamental electronic absorption of the molecule in the ultraviolet wavelenght region.Main Results. We have established that the solution concentration md has a nonlinear character and may be represented by the quadratic polynomial with the error Δn= ± 0,0005. We have shown the refractive indexdependence on temperature n(t) changes in linear fashion att = 10-70 °C.At that, the inclination of lines n(t) increases at the increase of md; so, the temperature factor dn/dt may be approximated by the quadratic polynomial. Transmission spectra of solutions in the spectral region λ= 225-760 nm have no special features except for the sharp edge in the short-wavelength region; the fundamental electronic absorptionis responsible for it. We have established that dispersion dependences of the refraction index n(λ;md) in aqueous solutions of carbamide at λ= 360-760 nm and at md = 0-50 % may be calculated with the satisfactory error without additional adjustable parameters from the ultraviolet absorption data in terms of the one-dimentional oscillator Lorentz model.PracticalRelevance. Representedmeasurements of carbonic acid diamide aqueous solutions optical properties may be applied for the adjustment and calibration of commercial refractometers at processing lines of the AdBlue reagent manufacture for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of motor transport exhaust gases.

Keywords: carbamide, refractive index, refractive index temperature factor, fundamental electronic absorption, industrial refractometry


1. Russell J., Cohn R. Carbamide. Moscow, 2012, 166 p. (In Russian)
2. Chen H., Cao Y.G., Tang J.X., Tang S.Y., Chen X. Fabrication of large-scale SiC fibers using carbamide as additives. Journal of Crystal Growth, 2001, vol. 231, no. 1–2, pp. 4–7. doi: 10.1016/S0022-0248(01)01460-9
3. Matishev V.A. Complexation with carbamide. Past, present, future. Chemistry and Technology of Fuels and Oils, 2000, vol. 36, no. 6, pp. 386–391.
4. Shabarov Yu.S. Organicheskaya Khimiya [Organic Chemistry]. 5th ed. St. Petersburg, Lan' Publ., 2011, 848 p.
5. Huang W.-Y., Heifner R.G., Taylor H., Uri N.D. Timing nitrogen fertilizer application to reduce nitrogen losses to the environment. Water Resources Management, 2000, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 35–58.
6. Energomet - official dealer of AdBlue urea in Russia. Available at:, свободный. Яз. рус. (accessed 13.03.2016).
7. aus der Wiesche S. Numerical heat transfer and thermal engineering of AdBlue (SCR) tanks for combustion engine emission reduction. Applied Thermal Engineering, 2007, vol. 27, no. 11–12, pp. 1790–1798. doi: 10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2007.01.008
8. Reutov O.A., Kurts A.L., Butin K.P. Organicheskaya Khimiya. V 4 chastyakh. Chast' 3. [Organic Chemistry. Part 3]. Moscow, BINOM Laboratoriya Znanii Publ., 2014, 547 p.
9. Dai X., Walker R.B., Mihailov S.J., Callender C.L., Blanchetière C. Optimization of temperature insensitive refractometer. Proceedings of SPIE, 2006, vol. 6371, art. 63710L.
10. Ilev I.K. Fiber-optic autocollimation refractometer. Optics Communications, 1995, vol. 119, no. 5–6, pp. 513–516. doi: 10.1016/0030-4018(95)00342-6
11. Kuzmin B.P., Maltseva N.K., Minin A.V. Interferometer-refractometer for determination of gaseous and liquid samples composition. Journal of Instrument Engineering, 2012, vol. 55, no. 7, pp. 56–60.
12. Akmarov K.A., Artemiev V.V., Belov N.P. et. al. Industrial refractometers and their application for control of chemical manufacturings. Instruments, 2012, no. 4, pp. 1–8. (In Russian)
13. Belov N.P., Lapshov S.N., Patyaev A.Yu., Sherstobitova A.S., Yas'kov A.D. Temperature dependence of refraction index for ethylene glycol and propylene glycol aqueous solutions. Scientific and Technical Journal of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics, 2012, no. 2(78), pp. 138–139.
14. Belov N.P., Gaydukova O.S., Panov I.A. et. al. Laboratory spectrophotometer for ultraviolet spectral region. Journal of Instrument Engineering, 2011, vol. 54, no. 5, pp. 81–87.
15. PC-Based molecular modeling. R&D Magazine, 1996, vol. 38, no. 11, pp. 56J.
16. Chemistry Software, HyperChem, Molecular Modeling. Available at: (accessed 13.03.2016).
17. Fekete Z.A., Hoffmannz E.A., Kortvelyesi T., Penke B. Harmonic vibrational frequency scaling factors for the new NDDO Hamiltonians: RM1 and PM6. Molecular Physics, 2007, vol. 105, no. 19–22, pp. 2597–2605. doi: 10.1080/00268970701598089
18. Rocha G.B., Freire R.O., Simas A.M., Stewart J.J.P. RM1: a reparameterization of AM1 for H, C, N, O, P, S, F, CL, BR, and I. Journal of Computational Chemistry, 2006, vol. 27, no. 10, pp. 1101–1111. doi: 10.1002/jcc.20425
19. Kaliteevskii N.I. Volnovaya Optika [Wave Optics]. St. Petersburg, Lan' Publ., 2008, 480 p.

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License
Copyright 2001-2024 ©
Scientific and Technical Journal
of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics.
All rights reserved.