IMPLEMENTATION OF FREQUENCY AND PHASE SYNCHRONIZATION OF FIBER-OPTIC HYDROACOUSTIC SENSORS ARRAY
Read the full article
For citation: Mikheev M.V., Deyneka I.G., Plotnikov M.Yu., Aleinik A.S., Shuklin P.A. Implementation of frequency and phase synchronization of fiber-optic hydroacoustic sensors array. Scientific and Technical Journal of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics , 2018, vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 968–975 (in Russian). doi: 10.17586/2226-1494-2018-18-6-968-975
Subject of Research.The problem of synchronization in arrays of distributed fiber-optic hydroacoustic sensors is considered. It is shown that noise floor level is one of the most important factors affecting the operation of the sensors. The maximum allowable level of phase noise arising from the operation of the synchronization system is determined. The main existing methods of synchronization are considered, and their influence on phase noise level is estimated. Method. The signal resampling method was used as the approach for signal synchronization task. Mathematical modeling of that method in the MATLAB environment was performed. It was shown that the addition of samples to the studied signal leads to a significant increase in phase distortion. Main Results. The impact of the clock frequency instability at the signal skew in the absence of synchronization system is numerically estimated. In case of ± 20 ppm generator clock frequency deviation, the skew reaches one second after 7 hours of work. It is shown that when 8 samples per second are added to the synchronized signal, spectral distortions reach the order of 100 µrad/Hz1/2. A hardware synchronization method is proposed that provides the possibility to increase the synchronization accuracy without distortion of the spectral and phase characteristics of the signal. The method is realized by adjusting local clock frequency generator involving feedback signal. Practical Relevance. The paper proposes two synchronization methods that allow for application of the Ethernet interface according to the IEEE 802.3 standard aimed at the implementation of the distributed sensor system synchronization. The paper presents an analytical and experimental evaluation of phase jitter value between different channels of the measuring system. These methods can be used in other distributed systems, where there is an urgent task of synchronization of its nodes while maintaining scalability and flexibility of the entire system.
Acknowledgements. This work was accomplished in ITMO University and was supported by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation (project No. 03.G25.31.0245).
Fiber Optic Sensors: An Introduction for Engineers and
Scientists. Ed. E. Udd. NY, John Wiley & Sons, 2011, 512 p. doi: 10.1002/9781118014103
Yin S., Ruffin P.B., Yu F.T.S. Fiber Optic Sensors. 2nd ed. CRC Press, 2008, 492 p.
Cranch G.A., Nash P.J., Kirkendall C.K. Large-scale remotely interrogated arrays of fiber-optic interferometric sensors for
underwater acoustic applications. IEEE Sensors Journal, 2003, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 19–30. doi: 10.1109/JSEN.2003.810102
Nakstad H., Kringlebotn J.T. Realisation of a full-scale
fibre-optic ocean bottom seismic system. Proceedings of SPIE, 2008, vol. 7004. doi: 10.1117/12.791158
Bykadorov M.V., Plotnikov M.Yu., Volkov A.V., Dmitraschenko P.Yu. Study of gain factor effect of erbium doped fiber amplifier on noise floor level of fiber-optic interferometric sensor.
Scientific and Technical Journal of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics, 2018, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 561–566.
(in Russian) doi: 10.17586/2226-1494-2018-18-4-561-566
De Freitas J.M. Recent developments in seismic seabed oil
reservoir monitoring applications using fibre-optic sensing
networks. Measurement Science and Technology, 2011, vol. 22, no. 5, p. 052001. doi: 10.1088/0957-0233/22/5/052001
Syed A.A., Heidemann J. Time synchronization for high latency acoustic networks. Proc. 25th IEEE Int. Conf. on
Computer Communications INFOCOM, 2006, vol. 6. doi: 10.1109/infocom.2006.161
Sampath A., Tripti C. Synchronization in distributed systems. Advances in Computing and Information Technology, 2012, pp. 417–424. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-31513-8_43
The Ocean Engineering Handbook/ Ed. F. El-Hawary. Boca Raton, CRC Press, 2001, 416 p.
Plotnikov M.Y., Volkov A.V., Kiselev S.S., Khramchenko E.A. Development and research of fiber-optic hydrophone protective housing. Scientific and Technical Journal of Information
Technologies, Mechanics and Optics, 2017, vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 767–774 (in Russian).
Lavrov V.S., Plotnikov M.Y., Aksarin S.M., Efimov M.E., Shulepov V.A., Kulikov A.V., Kireenkov A.U. Experimental
investigation of the thin fiber-optic hydrophone array based on fiber Bragg gratings. Optical Fiber Technology, 2017, vol. 34, pp. 47–51. doi: 10.1016/j.yofte.2017.01.003
Belikin M.N., Plotnikov M.Yu., Strigalev V.E., Kulikov A.V., Kireenkov A.Yu. Experimental comparison of homodyne
demodulation algorithms for phase fiber-optic sensor.Scientific and Technical Journal of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics, 2015, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 1008–1014. (in Russian). doi: 10.17586/2226-1494-2015-15-6-1008-1014
Volkov A.V., Plotnikov M.Y., Mekhrengin M.V., Miroshnichenko G.P., Aleynik A.S. Phase modulation depth evaluation and correction technique for the PGC demodulation scheme in fiber-optic interferometric sensors. IEEE
Sensors Journal, 2017, vol. 17, no. 13, pp. 4143–4150. doi: 10.1109/JSEN.2017.2704287
Nikitenko A.N., Plotnikov M.Y., Plotnikov A.V., Mekhrengin M.V., Kireenkov A.Y. PGC-Atan demodulation scheme with the carrier phase delay compensation for fiber-optic interferometric sensors. IEEE Sensors Journal, 2018, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 1985–1992.doi: 10.1109/JSEN.2018.2792540
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License