DOI: 10.17586/2226-1494-2017-17-5-767-774


M. Y. Plotnikov, A. V. Volkov, S. S. Kiselev, E. A. Khramchenko

Read the full article 
Article in Russian

For citation: Plotnikov M.Y., Volkov A.V., Kiselev S.S., Khramchenko E.A. Development and research of fiber-optic hydrophone protective housing. Scientific and Technical Journal of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics, 2017, vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 767–774 (in Russian). doi: 10.17586/2226-1494-2017-17-5-767-774


 Subject of Research.The subject of research is the protective housing for the fiber-optic hydrophone that is a part of the working model of the ocean seismic bottom station. The fiber-optic hydrophone is built on the base of Mach-Zehnder interferometer. Its sensitive arm is wounded on the elastic mandrel. The mandrel material increases acoustic pressure sensitivity of the optical fiber. The developed housing is designed to protect the sensitive optical fiber from mechanical damage. The housing also passes the acoustic signals in water without attenuation in the work frequency range of the fiber-optic hydrophone up to 8 kHz. Method. The theoretical calculations, based on the Helmholtz resonator theory, and mathematical modeling by the finite element method in the ComsolMultiphysics environment were used to develop the protective housing with required parameters. Created models enabled the definition of the protective housing final construction that passes acoustic signals in the required frequency range. Main Results. As a result of mathematical modeling the final construction of the protective housing was chosen. The construction is based on the aluminum cylinder with the external radius equal to 30 mm, the height - 14 cm and the wall thickness - 1 mm and it contains 1900 holes with the radius equal to 1 mm. During the modeling the frequency response of the protective housing was obtained; this response demonstrated its acoustic transparency in water at frequencies up to 8 kHz. The chosen protective housing was fabricated and studied in the working model of the ocean seismic bottom station. Experiment results confirmed the acoustic transparency of the protective housing in the required frequency range. Practical Relevance. The results of this work might be used for the developing and creating of protective housings for fiber-optic hydrophones with the required frequency responses. The developed protective housing is used in the working model of the ocean seismic bottom station and it provides the mechanical protection of the optical fiber in the sensitive element of the fiber optic-hydrophone without distortion of its frequency response.

Keywords: fiber-optic hydrophone, protective housing, Helmholtz resonator, acoustic filter, ocean seismic bottom station

Acknowledgements. This research was carried out at ITMO University and was supported by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation (Project No.03.G25.31.0245).

 1.     Yin S., Ruffin P.B., Yu F.T.S. Fiber Optic Sensors. 2nd ed. CRC Press, 2008, 492 p.
2.     Cole J.H., Kirkendall C., Dandridge A., Cogdell G., Giallorenzi T.G. Twenty-five years of interferometric fiber optic acoustic sensors at the naval research laboratory. Washington Academy of Sciences Journal, 2004, vol. 90, pp. 40–57.
3.     Hu Y. et al. Recent progress toward fiber optic hydrophone research, application and commercialization in China. Proc. of SPIE, 2012, vol. 8421, pp. 84210Q-1. doi: 10.1117/12.981130 
4.     Ames G.H., Maguire J.M. Miniaturized mandrel-based fiber optic hydrophone. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 2007, vol. 121, no. 3, pp. 1392–1395. doi: 10.1121/1.2431340
5.     Lavrov V.S., Plotnikov M.Y., Aksarin S.M. et al. Experimental investigation of the thin fiber-optic hydrophone array based on fiber Bragg gratings. Optical Fiber Technology, 2017, vol. 34, pp. 47–51. doi: 10.1016/j.yofte.2017.01.003
6.     Chen G.Y., Brambilla G., Newson T.P. Compact acoustic sensor based on air-backed mandrel coiled with optical microfiber. Optics Letters, 2012, vol. 37, no. 22, pp. 4720–4722. doi: 10.1364/ol.37.004720
7.     Yin K., Zang M., Ding T. et al. An investigation of a fiber-optic air-backed mandrel hydrophone. Optics Communications, 2008, vol. 281, no.1, pp. 94–101. doi: 10.1016/j.optcom.2007.09.029
8.     Cuneo S., Plotnikov A., Repetto L., Anghinolfi M. A passive hydrophone for high-frequency application. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, 2006, vol. 567, no. 2, pp. 518–520. doi: 10.1016/j.nima.2006.05.178
9.     The Ocean Engineering Handbook/ Ed. F. El-Hawary. Boca Raton, CRC Press, 2001, 416 p.
10.  De Freitas J.M. Recent developments in seismic seabed oil reservoir monitoring applications using fibre-optic sensing networks. Measurement Science and Technology, 2011, vol. 22, no. 5, p. 052001. doi: 10.1088/0957-0233/22/5/052001
11.  Liokumovich L.B. Fiber-Optic Interferometric Measurements. Part 2. Fiber Interferometric Sensing Element. St. Petersburg, SPbSTU Publ., 2007, 110 p. (In Russian)
12.  Plotnikov M.Yu. Volokonno-Opticheskii Gidrofon. Dis. kand. tekhn. nauk. [Fiber-Optic Hydrophone. PhD Eng. Sci. Diss.]. St. Petersburg, NRU ITMO Publ., 2015, 155 p.
13.  Kulikov A.V., Nikitenko A.N., Meshkovsky I.K., Plotnikov M.Ju. Seismic subsea node on basis of fiber-optic hydrophone and MEMS geophone. Devices and Systems of Exploration Geophysics, 2015, vol. 52, no. 2, pp. 56–65.(In Russian).
14.  Efimov M.E., Plotnikov M.Yu., Kulikov A.V. Modeling and experimental study of a fiber optic hydrophone sensing element. Scientific and Technical Journal of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics, 2014, no. 5, pp. 158–163. (In Russian)
15.  Wang Z., Hu Y., Meng Z., Ni M. Fiber-optic hydrophone using a cylindrical Helmholtz resonator as a mechanical anti-aliasing filter. Optic Letters, 2008, vol. 33, no. 1, pp.37–39. doi: 10.1364/ol.33.000037
16.  Wang Z., Hu Y., Meng Z., Luo H., Ni M. Novel mechanical anti-aliasing fiber-optic hydrophone with fourth order acoustic low pass filter. Optic Letters, 2008, vol. 33, no. 11, pp.1267–1269. doi: 10.1364/ol.33.001267
17.  Zhang M., Ma X., Wang L., Lai S., Zhou H., Zhao H., Liao Y. Progress of optical fiber sensors and its application in harsh environment. Photonic Sensors, 2011, vol. 1, no. 1, pp.84–89.doi: 10.1007/s13320-010-0012-1
18.  Ingard U. On the theory and design of acoustic resonators. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 1953, vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 1037–1061. doi: 10.1121/1.1907235
19.  Agrafonova A.A., Komkin A.I. Analysis of factors determining the Helmholtz resonator eigenfrequency. Science and Education of the Bauman MSTU, 2014, no. 12, pp. 220–231. doi: 10.7463/1214.0742764
20.  Komkin A.I., Mironov M.A., Yudin S.I. Eigenfrequency of a Helmholtz resonator at the wall of a rectangular duct. Acoustical Physics, 2014,vol. 60,no.2, pp.142–145.doi: 10.1134/s1063771014020109
21.  Efimov M.E., Plotnikov M.Yu., Mekhrengin M.V., Lavrov V.S. Directivity pattern investigation of dual fiber optic hydrophone.Scientific and Technical Journal of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics, 2015, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 1015–1020. (In Russian). doi: 10.17586/2226-1494-2015-15-6-1015-1020
22.  Belikin M.N., Plotnikov M.Yu., Strigalev V.E., Kulikov A.V., Kireenkov A.Yu. Experimental comparison of homodyne demodulation algorithms for phase fiber-optic sensor.Scientific and Technical Journal of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics, 2015, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 1008–1014. (In Russian). doi: 10.17586/2226-1494-2015-15-6-1008-1014
23.  Plotnikov M.Yu., Kulikov A.V., Strigalev V.E. Investigation of output signal amplitude dependence in homodyne demodulation scheme for phase fiber-optic sensor. Scientific and Technical Journal of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics, 2013, no. 6, pp. 18–22. (In Russian)
24.  Volkov A.V., Oskolkova E.S., Plotnikov M.Yu., Mekhrengin M.V., Shuklin P.A. Phase shift influence research of the reference oscillator signal on the output signal in homodyne demodulation scheme.Scientific and Technical Journal of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics, 2015, vol.15, no. 4, pp. 608–614. (In Russian). doi: 10.17586/2226-1494-2015-15-4-608-614
25.  Plotnikov M.J., Kulikov A.V., Strigalev V.E., Meshkovsky I.K. Dynamic range analysis of the phase generated carrier demodulation technique. Advances in Optical Technologies, 2014, vol. 2014, art. 815108. doi: 10.1155/2014/815108
26.  Volkov A.V., Plotnikov M.Y., Mekhrengin M.V., Miroshnichenko G.P., Aleynik A.S. Phase modulation depth evaluation and correction technique for the PGC demodulation scheme in fiber-optic interferometric sensors. IEEE Sensors Journal, 2017,vol. 17,no.13,pp. 4143–4150.doi: 10.1109/jsen.2017.2704287
27.  Meshkovskij I.K., Miroshnichenko G.P., Mekhrengin M.V., Plotnikov M.Yu. Method for Controlling Signal Parameters of Fibre-Optic Interferometric Phase Sensor with Adjustable Optical Radiation Source. Patent RU 2595320, 2016.
28.  Schmid H. How to use the FFT and Matlab’s pwelch function for signal and noise simulations and measurements. Institute of Microelectronics, University of Applied Sciences NW Switzerland, 2012.

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License
Copyright 2001-2019 ©
Scientific and Technical Journal
of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics.
All rights reserved.