Summaries of the Issue
OPTICAL AND OPTICAL ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS. OPTICAL TECHNOLOGIES
The paper studies the structure, optical and operational properties of a silicone film deposited on the surface of quartz glass as a result of the action of laser radiation on volatile substances released from a silicone rubber sample in a closed volume. The research was carried out within the framework of the laser multiparameter method and using an original setup, which includes a solid-state neodymium laser with a wavelength of 1064 nm, and laser pulse parameters: energy of 105 mJ, a duration of 11–14 ns, a repetition rate of 10 Hz. A sealed test-cuvette is placed at the output of the laser. A silicone rubber sample is placed inside the test-cuvette. When laser radiation passes through the test-cuvette, volatile substances that are released from the sample over time interact with the laser radiation and create deposition zones on the optical elements of the test-cuvette, which affect the optical characteristics of these optical elements. The topology of the deposition zones was studied using a profilometer. The structural composition of the original silicone rubber and the deposition zone was determined using a scanning electron microscope. The main results show the dependences of the coefficients of the area and attenuation of the deposition zone on the temperature and the number of laser pulses. The elemental composition, color, resistance to the action of the solvent, and the thickness of the deposition zones have been investigated. It was found that with an increase in the temperature and the number of laser pulses, the area and attenuation coefficients of the deposition zones increase, the color does not change, and the resistance to the action of the solvent increases. With an increase in temperature, the deposition zone, initially consisting of micro-fragments, becomes continuous, and with an increase in the number of laser pulses, its thickness increases. The thickness of the deposition zone is unevenly distributed along its diameter. The results obtained can be applied in the development of silicone-containing biochips for health diagnostics and therapy.
Features of the fiber-optic method for remote identification of material type with a fiber ytterbium laser are
described; the feasibility is shown to determine the basic building materials type by the spectrograms of plasma
torch originating at affecting of laser radiation on the surface of the test materials; the ability of the identification
process automation is analyzed.
The article deals with a way of the influence minimization of the speckle modulation in the trigger type optical
probes on the output. The issue of discrete data acquisition is analyzed. Correlation function measurements of
the output signal envelope at several arbitrary points on the surface of the object are done. Obtained results are of
great practical importance for the trigger type optical probe.
Spectral characteristics experimental study of the object position reflection (bucket of molten metal) by X-Rite spectrophotometer (Switzerland) is done, the possibility of spectral characteristics representing by linearharmonic functions with enough metrological accuracy class is proved.
Представлен роботизированный комплекс для диагностики состояния трубо-проводов и сварных соединений. В состав комплекса входят роботизированное средство доставки, датчик, выполненный по технологии фазированных антенных решеток с электромагнитно-акустическими преобразователями, а также система удаленного управления. Отличительные особенности разработанного комплекса — проведение диагностирования без предварительной обработки от загрязнения исследуемой поверхности металла трубопровода и автоматизированное удаленное управление роботом-дефектоскопом по беспроводному каналу связи.
On the example of synthesis of structure of two-level distributed system of collection and pro-cessing of information on technical condition of space vehicles in the course of their life cycle, a state-ment is given of the problem of formation of the information system target state. An approach to imple-mentation of the concept of functional-structural synthesis of complex systems based on solution of mul-ti-criteria discrete programming problem is used. Composition and dimensions of generalized vectors of structural parameters of the system and its elements are specified. Expressions for estimating the prob-lem dimensionality are presented. It is concluded that a special technique of reduced iteration of infor-mation system variants is necessary to be applied.
Results of studies of the "prevalence" of distribution laws in practice are presented. The basis of the studies is the entropy coefficient for parameters of various objects and processes. Inconsistency of the approach based on "total" approximation of the real distribution laws by the normal law when con-ducting research and organizing the management of objects of different nature is substantiated. It is ar-gued that accounting for variability of the analyzed parameter in the form of the entropy coefficient of a real distribution law increases the adequacy of descriptions of uncertainty states, which, in turn, affects the effectiveness of research and decision-making. It makes the methods and technologies of the theory of entropy potentials very convenient and useful "tools" for solving such problems in question. The theory potentialities allow monitoring and organization of control of uncertainty states of complex systems. The use of obtained results makes it possible to quickly assess the dominance of specific types of distribution laws in different situations when solving monitoring and control problems using the entropy approach.
Исследован процесс механического полирования селенида цинка с использованием в качестве полирующего материала водно-гликолевой суспензии алмазов: монокристаллического АСМ и поликристаллического RDDM. На основании полученных результатов разработана методика механического полирования ZnSe, позволяющая получать шероховатость 0,227 нм, при этом отклонение в форме поверхности не превышает одного кольца.
Модульное оборудование отличается универсальностью и может выполнять производственные операции разных типов, как обрабатывающие, так и вспомогательные. Очевидно, что модули могут различаться по размерам и по расположению оси инструмента, что затрудняет установку и настройку в ручном режиме. Предложена методика автоматизированного позиционирования съемных модулей для трехкоординатной платформы, основанная на применении системы технического зрения. Разработан алгоритм, совмещающий обзорную камеру, располагаемую над рабочим полем, с инкрементальными энкодерами сервоприводов установки. Для определения конфигурации рабочего пространства и размеров модуля применяется библиотека оптических меток. Данная методика позволяет избежать ошибки установки модулей вручную, сопоставив координатные системы модуля и платформы, а также повысить уровень автоматизации рабочего процесса производства изделия.
Достигнутый уровень цифровизации современных радиолокационных станций (РЛС) и наличие контрольно-диагностической системы, регистрирующей в реальном масштабе времени данные о техническом состоянии изделия и его компонентов, позволяют перейти к формированию структурной схемы РЛС. Решение этой задачи возможно с использованием булевой алгебры. Исследована возможность определения по экспериментальным данным критических элементов РЛС, выявление которых обеспечивает повышение точности прогноза и соответственно коэффициента готовности. Предложен алгоритм формирования схемы надежности по данным, основанный на синтезе логической функции из уникальных состояний функционирующей системы. В качестве примера синтеза логической функции из уникальных состояний системы в модельном эксперименте выбраны кратковременные самоустраняющиеся отказы, обусловленные перегревом блоков усиления мощности из состава передающей подрешетки. Предложенный методический аппарат формирования структурной схемы надежности РЛС на основе поиска уникальных наборов состояний ее элементов позволяет по мере возникновения новых отказов уточнять схему надежности в процессе эксплуатации изделия.
The presented review of scientific literature on the topic "Digital twins in industry" is based on publications by foreign and domestic researchers. The processes of the concept development starting from the moment of its appearance to the present, are considered. Due to the ambiguity of the term "Digital Twin” interpretation, several definitions of this concept are formulated, and a brief analysis of them is given. Classification of digital twins, as well as approaches to their construction and technologies used are reflected. Scenarios of digital twins application are considered on examples from the experience of Russian and foreign companies. Conclusions are given on the prospects for development in the research area, the advantages and risks of introducing digital twins at industrial enterprises are analyzed.
Dynamic models of piezo energy harvesters (PEH) based on thin single-layer piezoelectric elements (PE) are considered. Using an equivalent circuitry of the piezoelectric harvester, differential equations are obtained and the transfer functions of the PEH, which relate the input variable (the load force on the PE) to the output variables (the voltage and current of the load capacitor), are found. Analytical studies of steady-state and transient processes in PEH under typical loading forces (pulsed, stepped, harmonic) are carried out. It is shown that a sufficient condition for stable piezoelectric energy harvesting, which consists in a continuous charge of the load capacitor, is a non-zero acceleration of the load force on the PE. The influence of the parameters PEH – equivalent values of resistance, capacitance and inductance of PE, resistance of conductors and diodes of the rectifier, capacitance of the load capacitor, load resistance – on transient processes is considered. The estimate of the maximum achievable PEH power at a monoharmonic load force on the PE is obtained. The data of analytical calculations and experimental studies of the piezoelectric energy harvesting in PG with a single-layer disk PE in the load force jump and meander modes are presented. The results of the research are intended for the design of PEH with a known range of loading forces.
The problem of managing a specialized cloud computing system performing heterogeneous resource-intensive tasks is considered when methods of the task execution can be represented as an arbitrary sorting out of a large number of options. Data-based parallelization of tasks under uncertainty is analyzed. To solve the problems of scheduling incoming input streams of tasks, the simulation is performed using the SimEvent/Simulink/MatLab software package. The functioning of the system and especially servers, represented as finite state machines, is analyzed. The peculiarity of the proposed model is the possibility of interrupting the server when an external signal appears. Using the developed server model makes it possible to improve system performance by saving time for each server to complete tasks and more efficiently distributing tasks between the servers of the entire system.
PHOTONICS AND OPTOINFORMATIСS
Comparative analysis is performed applied to the two methods of tomography images reconstruction in spectral
optical coherence tomography: conventional method based on inverse Fourier transformation and logarithmic
transformation method. Advantages of the logarithmic transformation method are shown expressed in obtaining
images of higher quality due to elimination of distortions introduced by accompanying non-informative
components of interferometer signals in spectral optical coherence tomography.
Experimental investigation of registration peculiarities of digital Fourier holograms in case of Nyquist frequency
excess has been carried out. It has been shown, that exceeding of Nyquist frequency by carrier frequency of the
hologram leads not to disappearance of the reconstructed image, but to gradual decrease of image intensity,
which indicates decrease of hologram diffraction efficiency.
The results of small displacements determination of objects surface by digital holography method are presented.
The process of digital holograms recording and phase information reconstruction from the holograms are
considered. Measurement accuracy of the normal surface displacement of an object while using two methods of
the zero-order diffraction removing is compared with the following phase calculation of object wave.
LASER AND BIOMEDICAL TECHNOLOGIES
Correlation between the optical density of the crystalline lens nucleus in terahertz range with its density,
determined according to the L. Buratto classification was revealed. Lens fibers infiltration caused by senile
cataract increases the lens reflectivity in the THz range. The temporal structure of reflected THz signals allows
determining the spatial distribution of crystalline lens density.
ANALYSIS AND SYNTHESIS OF COMPLEX SYSTEMS
The article deals with correction signals forming of systematic codes distortion using quasi-syndromes of errors
in the algorithmic recurrent decode environment in the case of high multiplicity error correction and in the rate
of hardware time. The article positions are illustrated by example.
The article deals with the physical processes research while the pulse forming of the pump current in the plasma
channel of the pulse xenon lamp in the pump current limitation mode by lamp itself.
Principles of neural networks synthesis are considered, shortcomings of approaches are shown when choosing
the structure and scales adjustment. Networks optimization is possible by evolutionary algorithms application
with advantages becoming apparent with multi coherent and multilayered networks operation. Simulation
experiments were made on concrete test function and confirm efficiency of the developed algorithms.
The article describes mathematical model acquisition method for the telescope azimuthal axis electro drive by its
parameters identification. Obtained model is used to configure high-precision object automatic control system,
and its work is checked on a real device. Theoretical calculations coincide with the practical results to a great
extent, showing the reliability of control system development method.
The article is of great interest for students, postgraduates, employees of electro technical specialties, and
specialties related to the theory of automatic control.
COMPUTER SYSTEMS AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES
A cognitive approach has been proposed for regional development of global safety management information and
analytical support problems solution based on conceptual, system-dynamic and multi-agent simulation methods
combination of complex dynamic systems and informatization processes. The approach provides intelligent
decision support systems development technologies design used in the field of regional socio-economic systems
safety development forecasting and strategic planning. Architecture and base components of distributed
problem-oriented agent-based platform for multi model complexes application and design for region safety
management support have been developed.
The approaches to fault-tolerant computer networks organization are researched based on duplicated computer
complexes, providing reliability and performance increase via dynamic redistribution of the requests flow, taking
into account status and occupancy of computer nodes. The presented results demonstrate the important role of
multiplicity of redundancy and occupancy balancing in system efficiency. The dependence of system efficiency
on the distribution method of computer nodes between network levels and requests flow between nodes are
identified. The efficiency of reliability and performance ensuring for computer systems, composed of duplicated
computer complexes, based on dynamic requests allocation is demonstrated.
An algorithm for De Bruijn sequences generation of the given degree based on the graphs of the same name is
proposed. Examples of pseudo regular code masks creation based on the generated sequences are given.
Management task of a reliable, modern, adaptive, flexible and functional enterprise IT- infrastructure creation
which is the basis of corporate information systems operation, testing and new business applications
implementation are discussed. This problem decision is connected with the decision of the whole complex of
problems based on enterprise IT- infrastructure formation. The strategy defines a set of priority initiatives in the
field of information technology which allows developing an information technological complex of the enterprise
in concord, with participation of all divisions, on the basis of uniform requirements for achievement of the
enterprise strategic targets.
MECHANICS AND MECHATRONICS
The article deals with kinematics of two-parametrical scanning aerial and the character of its movement.
Simulation model of aerial mechanical module in SimMechanics package is suggested and solution of analytical
equations for mechanical module movement by MATLAB functions is obtained. Comparison of numerical
results obtained at similar initial conditions is carried out for simulation model of aerial mechanical module in
SimMechanics package and analytical equations for mechanical module movement by MATLAB functions. The
case with an additional rotation angle is simulated.
MATERIALS TECHNOLOGY AND NANOTECHNOLOGIES
The process of watery solutions absorption by the acrylic polymer films and its quantitative description is
investigated. Swelling dynamics of obtained hydrogels is described on the basis of Hurst exponents images and
fractal dimension at different swelling phases. Ionized networks of copolymers of acrylic acid, N,N’-
methylenebisacrylamide, were prepared by free-radical polymerization in water in the form of thin porous films.
The dynamics of the pores filling is quantitatively described on the basis of the Hurst exponents and fractal
dimensions by means of ellipsometry.
THERMAL PHYSICS AND THEORETICAL HEAT ENGINEERING
Method of the free-convection heat exchange calculation on solid surfaces is presented in 110-1000 К
temperature range. Analytical form for Rayleigh number in a wide temperature range is presented. The results of
the calculation for Rayleigh number are compared with reference data for air. The discrepancy between the
above formula and the reference data does not exceed 10%.
INFORMATION SECURITY METHODS AND SYSTEMS
Design mathematical methods of information security system infrastructure at the enterprise are considered.
Mathematical models of costs minimization for information security system infrastructure creation and
maximization of information security level of the enterprise and results of their practical use are given.
The main problems of traditional methods of malicious software detection, based on the virus databases updating
are analyzed. Alternative methods based on cloud computing are considered. A new detection method based on
the unknown software propagation analysis is proposed.
The probabilistic approach of information influence evaluation on the users’ opinion in open systems is
described. Core statements of mathematical theory for the other probabilistic models creation are proposed.
Procedures and consequences of intentional electromagnetic influence on the Ethernet networks using ultra short
electromagnetic pulses are described. A probabilistic error origin model in data transfer over the Ethernet for
such actions is represented.
INSTRUMENT-MAKING TECHNIQUE. ORGANIZATION OF PRODUCTION
The necessity of information and telecommunication platform (ITP) creation is proved for solving the selection
and design of new polymer composites in the field of instrument-making. Software systems for design of new
materials and structural analysis of products with the manufacture technology are defined. The functional
diagram of an integrated solution is represented. The injection molding is considered as the basic technology of
product manufacturing. The requirements to the ITP dataware are defined in view of material database usage,
both by users and software systems.
Expediency of electro-erosion facilities in preparing surfaces with determined micro geometric surface
parameters while creating formative matrix is justified. Solutions of technological tasks are presented, which
show the expediency of electro-erosion facilities in simplifying of creating technology and efficiency increase
with saving specified surface quality. In addition, experiments results are presented, showing failure of
parametrical method as a method of surface roughness assessment, and showing influence of instrumentelectrode
surface roughness on the speed of blank-product surface processing.
ECONOMICS AND FINANCES. MANAGEMENT
Basic directions for formation of management scientific preconditions for intellectual property are stated,
interrelation of strategic innovative development of the country with intellectual property management at businessunits
level is shown and modern approach to commercialization of intellectual activity results is reflected.
The article discusses the methodological and theoretical basis of sustainability and sustainable development of
business structures as socio-economic systems. Issues of sustainability and sustainable development are of
increasing relevance and acuteness in the circumstances of unstable socioeconomic situation, financial crises,
having become increasingly frequent in the context of globalization. Definitions of sustainability, sustainable
development, an analysis of the essence of sustainability are proposed; the main criteria and factors of
sustainable development and principles of sustainability of business structures are considered.
Risk management system for goods and vehicles movement through customs border of the Russian Federation is
analyzed. Basic elements of the system mechanism are considered. This system application results are analyzed.
A balanced system of venture capital investment is necessary for the development of innovation sphere. The
absence of investors at one innovation development stage threatens to decrease the speed of innovation sphere
development and the loss of perspective projects and designs. This article provides the analysis of investments
by innovation stages in the US and Russia, which identifies significant problems in the innovations development
in the Russian Federation.
NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN EDUCATION
Project management model for university main competence-oriented educational programs is suggested; its
principle parts are considered. The structure of main competence-oriented educational program is described and
the structure of graduation student competence model as well. Step-by-step approach for creation of graduation
student competence model is shown.
According to demands of industrial refractometric technologies, temperature dependence of refractive index and temperature factor data in the range of 10 to 60 °C of aqueous solutions of ethylene glycol and propylene glycol with concentration k = 0–60 % are given.
The architecture for the automated workplace of the onboard aviation equipment developer is considered. The scheme is given and the basic functional components being a part of specialized automated design system, used on the aviation enterprise, are described.
The technology of life cycle support for aviation production within the framework of “design-manufactureoperation” is considered. Interaction scheme for manufacturers, suppliers and users of onboard equipment and the structure of the product account in a corporate electronic database is given.
Proposals on organization and maintenance of works on information security against deliberate electromagnetic influences are given. These proposals are the basis of the state standard specification project being developed by the authors.
Options for wired and wireless channels of computer networks merging into a single redundant environment are analyzed.
The article deals with specified estimation of functional safety for the duplicated computing system in view of periodicity of control and transition possibility in a dangerous condition because of not detecting the refusal of one of system computers.
This article discusses basic functions and requirements for the system of financial planning. The most common systems in Kazakhstan are analyzed in agreement with the requirements.
The paper considers a new pausing method for intonational speech synthesis systems based on the analysis of distributional semantics in large text corpora. The support vector machine and two speech corpora in Kazakh were used for pause prediction. The prediction of pause places was carried out at the level of bigrams, where the input parameters of the bigram were the vector representations of both of its words and their bit string representation in the Brown cluster model. The carried out studies have shown that the proposed pausing method for the automatic speech synthesis systems for the Kazakh language in the narrative style provides high accuracy of pause placement. The importance of homogeneous data usage was confirmed experimentally for solving such problems. Such approach can facilitate the creation of automatic speech synthesis for many languages.