Summaries of the Issue

REVIEW

1
Virtual Reality (virtual environment technology, VET) has been widely available for twenty years. In that time, the benefits of using virtual environments (VEs) have become clear in many areas of application, including assessment and training, education, rehabilitation and psychological research in spatial cognition. The flexibility, reproducibility and adaptability of VEs are especially important, particularly in the training and testing of navigational and way-finding skills. Transfer of training between real and virtual environments has been found to be reliable. However, input device usage can compromise spatial information acquisition from VEs, and distances in VEs are invariably underestimated. The present review traces the evolution of VET, anticipates future areas in which developments are likely to occur, and highlights areas in which research is needed to optimise usage.

PHOTONICS AND OPTOINFORMATICS

PURCELL EFFECT IN EXTREMELY ANISOTROPIC ELLIPTIC METAMATERIALS Chebykin Alexander V., Orlov Alexey Anatolievich, Heisler Fabian , Baryshnikova Ksenia V., Belov Pavel Alexandrovich
9
The paper deals with theoretical demonstration of Purcell effect in extremely anisotropic metamaterials with elliptical isofrequency surface. This effect is free from association with divergence in density of states unlike the case of hyperbolic metamaterials. It is shown that a large Purcell factor can be observed without excitation of modes with large wave vectors in one direction, and the component of the wave vector normal to the layers is less than k0. For these materials the possibility is given for increasing of the power radiated in the medium, as well as the power radiated from material into free space across the medium border situated transversely to the layers. We have investigated isofrequency contours and the dependence of Purcell factor from the frequency for infinite layered metamaterial structure. In the visible light range strong spatial dispersion gives no possibility to obtain enhancement of spontaneous emission in metamaterial with unit cell which consists of two layers. This effect can be achieved in periodic metal-dielectric layered nanostructures with a unit cell containing two different metallic layers and two dielectric ones. Analysis of the dependences for Purcell factor from the frequency shows that the spontaneous emission is enhanced by a factor of ten or more only for dipole orientation along metamaterial layers, but in the case of the transverse orientation radiation can be enhanced only 2-3 times at most. The results can be used to create a new type of metamaterials with elliptical isofrequency contours, providing a more efficient light emission in the far field.
15
The subject of study is the techniques of particle statistics evaluation, in particular, processing methods of particle images obtained by coherent illumination. This paper considers the problem of recognition and statistical accounting for individual images of small scattering particles in an arbitrary section of the volume in case of high concentrations. For automatic recognition of focused particles images, a special algorithm for statistical analysis based on contouring and thresholding was used. By means of the mathematical formalism of the scalar diffraction theory, coherent images of the particles formed by the optical system with high numerical aperture were simulated. Numerical testing of the method proposed for the cases of different concentrations and distributions of particles in the volume was performed. As a result, distributions of density and mass fraction of the particles were obtained, and the efficiency of the method in case of different concentrations of particles was evaluated. At high concentrations, the effect of coherent superposition of the particles from the adjacent planes strengthens, which makes it difficult to recognize images of particles using the algorithm considered in the paper. In this case, we propose to supplement the method with calculating the cross-correlation function of particle images from adjacent segments of the volume, and evaluating the ratio between the height of the correlation peak and the height of the function pedestal in the case of different distribution characters. The method of statistical accounting of particles considered in this paper is of practical importance in the study of volume with particles of different nature, for example, in problems of biology and oceanography. Effective work in the regime of high concentrations expands the limits of applicability of these methods for practically important cases and helps to optimize determination time of the distribution character and statistical characteristics of the particles.
SELF-ORGANIZATION OF LEAD SULFIDE QUANTUM DOTS INTO SUPERSTRUCTURES Ushakova Elena Vladimirovna, Golubkov Valery Viktorovich, Oskolkov Evgeniy O., Litvin Alexander Petrovich, Parfenov Peter Sergeevich, Baranov Alexander Vasilievich
22
The method of X-ray structural analysis (X-ray scattering at small angles) is used to show that the structures obtained by self-organization on a substrate of lead sulfide (PbS) quantum dots are ordered arrays. Self-organization of quantum dots occurs at slow evaporation of solvent from a cuvette. The cuvette is a thin layer of mica with teflon ring on it. The positions of peaks in SAXS pattern are used to calculate crystal lattice of obtained ordered structures. Such structures have a primitive orthorhombic crystal lattice. Calculated lattice parameters are: a = 21,1 (nm); b = 36,2 (nm); c = 62,5 (nm). Dimensions of structures are tens of micrometers. The spectral properties of PbS QDs superstructures and kinetic parameters of their luminescence are investigated. Absorption band of superstructures is broadened as compared to the absorption band of the quantum dots in solution; the luminescence band is slightly shifted to the red region of the spectrum, while its bandwidth is not changed much. Luminescence lifetime of obtained structures has been significantly decreased in comparison with the isolated quantum dots in solution, but remained the same for the lead sulfide quantum dots close-packed ensembles. Such superstructures can be used to produce solar cells with improved characteristics.
28
The paper deals with the results of Monte Carlo simulation of light propagation in a media with complex structure and dynamics by an original speckle-correlometry approach based on ring-like apertures and localized source of probe light. The «dynamic» lengthy objects with different geometry and depth location in the «static» inhomogeneous layer imitating biotissues with different characteristics of blood microcirculation were chosen as simulated media. The backscattering coefficient of laser light for the simulated media evaluated as a ratio of the «dynamic» partial components of the backscattered field to the full backscattered field is obtained. At the same time the «dynamic» partial components of the backscattered field and the full backscattered field are detected by the ring detector with the set value of ring aperture radius. The depth location of «dynamic» lengthy objects was determined analyzing the results of the dependence of the backscattering coefficient on the ring detector radii. It was also shown that the dependences of the backscattering coefficient on the ring detector radius in the case of probed media with different optical properties and containing the «dynamic» lengthy object with different geometric sizes can be described by the δ-like function. But the displacement of the peak value of δ-like function can be caused by the change of the scattering anisotropy factor
СOMPUTATIONAL COMPLEXITY ANALYSIS OF RECURRENT DATA PROCESSING ALGORITHMS IN OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY Volynsky Maxim Alexandrovich, Gurov Igor P, Ermolaev Petr A, Skakov Pavel Sergeevich
35
The paper deals with the basic principles of signals representation in optical coherence tomography with the usage of dynamic systems theory formalism. Computational complexity of algorithms for dynamic estimation of signals parameters is analyzed, such as extended Kalman filter and sequential Monte-Carlo method. It is shown that processing time of one discrete-time sample of the signal by extended Kalman filter increases polynomially with sizes of parameters vector and observation vector. Processing time of one discrete-time sample of the signal by sequential Monte-Carlo method depends linearly both on sizes of parameters vector and observation vector, and on the number of generating random vectors. Experimental results of processing time measurement by each algorithm are described. It is shown that processing time of the signal containing 500 discrete-time samples by extended Kalman filter in the case of the simplest model is approximately equal to 0.1 seconds and increases several times with complication of the model. Processing time of the same signal by sequential Monte-Carlo methods with fixed number of generated random vectors is equal to 0.7 seconds and slightly increases with complication of the model, approximately by 1.5 times. Obtained results may be used for estimation of expected data processing time by recurrent dynamic estimation algorithms in optical coherence tomography systems.

OPTICAL ENGINEERING

41
Two new complementary methods of stereo pair images formation are proposed. The first method is based on finding the maximum correlation between the gradient images of the left and right frames. The second one implies the finding of the shift between two corresponding key points of images for a stereo pair found by a detector of point features. These methods give the possibility to set desired values of vertical and horizontal parallaxes for the selected object in the image. Application of these methods makes it possible to measure the parallax values for the objects on the final stereo pair in pixels and / or the percentage of the total image size. It gives the possibility to predict the possible excesses in parallax values while stereo pair printing or projection. The proposed methods are easily automated after object selection, for which a predetermined value of the horizontal parallax will be exposed. Stereo pair images superposition using the key points takes less than one second. The method with correlation application requires a little bit more computing time, but makes it possible to control and superpose undivided anaglyph image. The proposed methods of stereo pair formation can find their application in programs for editing and processing images of a stereo pair, in the monitoring devices for shooting cameras and in the devices for video sequence quality assessment.
METHOD FOR DETERMINING THE SPATIAL COORDINATES IN THE ACTIVE STEREOSCOPIC SYSTEM Korotaev Valery Viktorovich, Djamiykov Todor S., Hoang Viet Nguyen, Yaryshev Sergey Nikolaevich
48
The paper deals with the structural scheme of active stereoscopic system and algorithm of its operation, providing the fast calculation of the spatial coordinates. The system includes two identical cameras, forming a stereo pair, and a laser scanner, which provides vertical scanning of the space before the system by the laser beam. A separate synchronizer provides synchronous operation of the two cameras. The developed algorithm of the system operation is implemented in MATLAB. In the proposed algorithm, the influence of background light is eliminated by interframe processing. The algorithm is based on precomputation of coordinates for epipolar lines and corresponding points in stereoscopic image. These data are used to quick calculation of the three-dimensional coordinates of points that form the three-dimensional images of objects. Experiment description on a physical model is given. Experimental results confirm the efficiency of the proposed active stereoscopic system and its operation algorithm. The proposed scheme of active stereoscopic system and calculating method for the spatial coordinates can be recommended for creation of stereoscopic systems, operating in real time and at high processing speed: devices for face recognition, systems for the position control of railway track, automobile active safety systems.

AUTOMATIC CONTROL AND ROBOTICS

CONTROL SYSTEM FOR UNMANNED AIRCRAFT EQUIPPED WITH ROBOTICS ARM Margun Alexei Anatolievich, Zimenko Konstantin Alexandrovich, Bazylev Dmitry N, Bobtsov Alexey Alexeevich, Kremlev Artem Sergeevich, Ibraev Denis D., Čech Martin
54
The paper deals with the problem of control system synthesis for multi rotational UAV equipped with robotics arm. Control algorithm is proposed based on the method of feedback linearization and synthesis of proportional-differential controller with the real time computation of the inertia tensor and center of mass changes and compensation of the reactive torque generated by the dynamics of the manipulator. Quadrocopter with attached articulated manipulator is selected as a model of the control object. Systems of equations describing the behavior of considered dynamical system are obtained according to the Newton and Euler-Lagrange laws. Expressions are offered, defining the inertia tensor and the position of the system center of mass depending on the current position of the manipulator, and the torque acting on the quadrocopter from the manipulator. Feedback linearization with arm influence compensation on quadrocopter is applied for the resulting nonlinear coupled system. As a result, robot dynamics equations have been converted to a linear stationary system. Converted system control is achieved by a proportional-differential controller. Examined system simulation is done with control method described in the paper and the classical method based on a proportional-differential controller. Simulation results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed approach and demonstrate that the proposed approach provides higher accuracy of the tracking error, than control method by means of proportional-differential regulator.
ADAPTIVE OUTPUT CONTROL OF MULTICHANNEL LINEAR STATIONARY SYSTEMS UNDER PARAMETRIC UNCERTAINTY Bobtsov Alexey Alexeevich, Faronov Maksim V., Furtat Igor Borisivich, Pyrkin Anton Alexandrovich, Wang Jian
63
The paper deals with the problem of adaptive control for multi-channel linear stationary plants under parametric uncertainty with arbitrary relative degree of each local subsystem. The synthesized regulator provides stabilization of control plant on condition that for each local subsystem only output variables are measured with known relative degrees, but the order of linear differential equations is unknown. We consider the synthesis of control system for two-channel system for simplification of the synthesis method. The "serial compensator" algorithm is chosen as basic approach with A.L. Fradkov's passification theorem and additional filters containing high gain constants in their structure. Durability of the closed system in the group of pointed types of regulators is analyzed and the necessary and sufficient conditions for exponential convergence properties are considered. We suggest adaptive version of the "serial compensator" method from the practical  point of view, where customization of the gain constant is based on the integral type algorithm. We show the results of computer simulation for the third and second order subsystems under parametric uncertainty to illustrate the proposed approach workability. It is shown that the proposed technique makes it possible to synthesize control algorithms for multichannel systems under parametric uncertainty with minimal dynamical order as compared to known foreign and domestic counterparts.

MATERIAL SCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGIES

FREQUENCY CHARACTERISTICS OF MODERN LED PHOSPHOR MATERIALS Fudin Maxim S., Munbaev Karim Djafarovich, Lipsanen Harri K., Aifantis Katerina E, Bougrov Vladislav E, Romanov Alexey E
71
Frequency characteristics of modern LED phosphor materials have been considered for the purpose of assessing the prospects of phosphor-based LEDs in wireless communication data systems which use optical wavelengths. The measurements have been carried out on the dependence of the emission intensity of single LEDs and LED chip-on-board modules with phosphors based on yttrium-aluminum and lutetium-aluminum garnets (with or without addition of nitridebased phosphors) as well as silicate-based phosphors, on the frequency of electric pulses exciting the emission. It was shown that from the point of view of data transmission rate, garnet-based phosphors (including systems with added nitride phosphors) are more promising than silicate–based ones. Garnet-based materials can be used in optical communication data systems with bandwidth (without extra modulation applied) up to 3 MHz with single–chip LEDs and up to 4.5 MHz with 9-chip LED chip-on-board modules. The results of the work indicate that a significant part of white LEDs used in general lighting systems can be even now used for data transfer, for example, in systems assisting positioning in closed spaces to facilitate people searching necessary rooms or objects.
77
Research and development of phosphors based on quantum dots (QD) is a perspective problem of photonics. The main advantages of fluorophosphate glass with quantum dots are: high absorption coefficient, solid matrix and a broad band luminescence with high quantum efficiency of QD. Manganese ions have an intense band luminescence in the red region of the spectrum. Thus, the addition of manganese ions in the glass with quantum dots leads to a broadening of the spectrum in the long wavelength region. Such emission is closer to natural sunlight and has a high color rendering index. The work objective is the study of the spectral and luminescent properties of fluorophosphate glasses doped with manganese and CdS quantum dots. Fluorophosphate glasses (47NaPO3-30H3PO4-10Ga2O3-5ZnO-xMnS-7,5NaALF6-4,2CdS, where x = 3, 6, 8 mol. %) were synthesized. The secondary heat treatment at the temperature of 430 ° C for 90 minutes has led to the growth of quantum dots in glass volume. Absorption spectra have been measured in the visible range (from 300 to 600 nm). Heat treatment has led to a shift of the fundamental absorption edge in the visible region of the spectrum. This change is due to the growth of quantum dots. Maximum intensity of luminescence is shifted to the red region of the spectrum from 620 nm to 660 nm under laser excitation at 410 nm. The maximum shift was observed in the glass with a concentration of 3 mol. % of manganese, the minimum one - in the glass with a concentration of 8 mol. %. Values of manganese ions lifetime from18 ms for a sample with a concentration of MnS 3 mol. % to15 ms for MnS 8 mol % were obtained. The decrease in the lifetime with concentration increasing of manganese ions is due to the concentration quenching of the luminescence. The growth of CdS quantum dots in the heat treatment leads to a decrease of the lifetimes to the values below 9-3 ms (3 and 8 - mol. % MnS, respectively). Obtained findings prove that fluorophosphate glasses doped with manganese and CdS quantum dots are perspective materials for phosphors in white LEDs.

COMPUTER SCIENCE

MULTISCALE DIFFERENTIAL METHOD FOR DIGITAL IMAGE SHARPENING Bezzubik Vitaly Veniaminovich, Nickolay R. Belashenkov, Vdovin Gleb V., Karmanovskiy Nikolay Sergeevich, Soloviev Oleg A.
82
We have proposed and tested a novel method for digital image sharpening. The method is based on multi-scale image analysis, calculation of differential responses of image brightness in different spatial scales, and the subsequent calculation of a restoration function, which sharpens the image by simple subtraction of its brightness values from those of the original image. The method features spatial transposition of the restoration function elements, its normalization, and taking into account the sign of the brightness differential response gradient close to the object edges. The calculation algorithm for the proposed method makes use of integer arithmetic that significantly reduces the computation time. The paper shows that for the images containing small amount of the blur due to the residual aberrations of an imaging system, only the first two scales are needed for the calculation of the restoration function. Similar to the blind deconvolution, the method requires no a priori information about the nature and magnitude of the blur kernel, but it is computationally inexpensive and is much easier in practical implementation. The most promising applications of the method are machine vision and surveillance systems based on real-time intelligent pattern recognition and decision making.
QUEUEING DISCIPLINES BASED ON PRIORITY MATRIX Aliev Taufic Ismailovich, Maharevs Eduards
91
The paper deals with queueing disciplines for demands of general type in queueing systems with multivendor load. A priority matrix is proposed to be used for the purpose of mathematical description of such disciplines, which represents the priority type (preemptive priority, not preemptive priority or no priority) between any two demands classes. Having an intuitive and simple way of priority assignment, such description gives mathematical dependencies of system operation characteristics on its parameters. Requirements for priority matrix construction are formulated and the notion of canonical priority matrix is given. It is shown that not every matrix, constructed in accordance with such requirements, is correct. The notion of incorrect priority matrix is illustrated by an example, and it is shown that such matrixes do not ensure any unambiguousness and determinacy in design of algorithm, which realizes corresponding queueing discipline. Rules governing construction of correct matrixes are given for canonical priority matrixes. Residence time for demands of different classes in system, which is the sum of waiting time and service time, is considered as one of the most important characteristics. By introducing extra event method Laplace transforms for these characteristics are obtained, and mathematical dependencies are derived on their basis for calculation of two first moments for corresponding characteristics of demands queueing.
AUTOMATA PROGRAMS CONSTRUCTION FROM SPECIFICATION WITH AN ANT COLONY OPTIMIZATION ALGORITHM BASED ON MUTATION GRAPH Chivilikhin Daniil Sergeevich, Ulyantsev Vladimir Igorevich, Vyatkin Valeriy V., Shalyto Anatoly Abramovich
98
The procedure of testing traditionally used in software engineering cannot guarantee program correctness; therefore verification is used at the excess requirements to programs reliability. Verification makes it possible to check certain properties of programs in all possible computational states; however, this process is very complex. In the model checking method a model of the program is built (often, manually) and requirements in terms of temporal logic are formulated. Such temporal properties of the model can be checked automatically. The main issue in this framework is the gap between the program and its model. Automata-based programming paradigm gives the possibility to overcome this limitation. In this paradigm, program logic is represented using finite-state machines. The advantage of finite-state machines is that their models can be constructed automatically. The paper deals with the application of mutation-based ant colony optimization algorithm to the problem of finite-state machine construction from their specification, defined by test scenarios and temporal properties. The presented approach has been tested on the elevator doors control problem as well as on randomly generated data. Obtained results show the ant colony algorithm is two-three times faster than the previously used genetic algorithm. The proposed approach can be recommended for inferring control programs for critical systems.
106
The efficiency of orthogonal transformations application in the frequency algorithms of the digital watermarking of still images is examined. Discrete Hadamard transform, discrete cosine transform and discrete Haar transform are selected. Their effectiveness is determined by the invisibility of embedded in digital image watermark and its resistance to the most common image processing operations: JPEG-compression, noising, changing of the brightness and image size, histogram equalization. The algorithm for digital watermarking and its embedding parameters remain unchanged at these orthogonal transformations. Imperceptibility of embedding is defined by the peak signal to noise ratio, watermark stability– by Pearson's correlation coefficient. Embedding is considered to be invisible, if the value of the peak signal to noise ratio is not less than 43 dB. Embedded watermark is considered to be resistant to a specific attack, if the Pearson’s correlation coefficient is not less than 0.5. Elham algorithm based on the image entropy is chosen for computing experiment. Computing experiment is carried out according to the following algorithm: embedding of a digital watermark in low-frequency area of the image (container) by Elham algorithm, exposure to a harmful influence on the protected image (cover image), extraction of a digital watermark. These actions are followed by quality assessment of cover image and watermark on the basis of which efficiency of orthogonal transformation is defined. As a result of computing experiment it was determined that the choice of the specified orthogonal transformations at identical algorithm and parameters of embedding doesn't influence the degree of imperceptibility for a watermark. Efficiency of discrete Hadamard transform and discrete cosine transformation in relation to the attacks chosen for experiment was established based on the correlation indicators. Application of discrete Hadamard transform increases stability of embedded watermark to the brightness changing and histogram equalization of the cover image. Haar transform application showed the lowest efficiency. These results will be useful in creation of frequency algorithm for embedding a digital watermark into an image.
PHYSICAL RESOURCES OF INFORMATION PROCESSES AND TECHNOLOGIES Kolbanev Mikhail O., Tatarnikova Tatiana M.
113
Subject of study. The paper describes basic information technologies for automating of information processes of data storage, distribution and processing in terms of required physical resources. It is shown that the study of these processes with such traditional objectives of modern computer science, as the ability to transfer knowledge, degree of automation, information security, coding, reliability, and others, is not enough. The reasons are: on the one hand, the increase in the volume and intensity of information exchange in the subject of human activity and, on the other hand, drawing near to the limit of information systems efficiency based on semiconductor technologies. Creation of such technologies, which not only provide support for information interaction, but also consume a rational amount of physical resources, has become an actual problem of modern engineering development. Thus, basic information technologies for storage, distribution and processing of information to support the interaction between people are the object of study, and physical temporal, spatial and energy resources required for implementation of these technologies are the subject of study. Approaches. An attempt is made to enlarge the possibilities of traditional cybernetics methodology, which replaces the consideration of material information component by states search for information objects. It is done by taking explicitly into account the amount of physical resources required for changes in the states of information media. Purpose of study. The paper deals with working out of a common approach to the comparison and subsequent selection of basic information technologies for storage, distribution and processing of data, taking into account not only the requirements for the quality of information exchange in particular subject area and the degree of technology application, but also the amounts of consumed physical resources. Main findings. Classification of resources consumed by the basic information technologies is suggested according to their physical nature. They are: spatial, temporal and energy resources. It is shown that the main spatial resources for basic information technologies are: data recording density, the users’ distribution in the coverage area and size of engineering process; temporal resources are: time of guaranteed saving, data delivery time and the handler efficiency; energy resources include: the barrier and the signal energy levels and power consumption. Key physical resources are highlighted for basic information technologies of data storage, distribution and processing that include, respectively, recording density, delivery time and power consumption. We suggest an approach to the selection of such information technology that meets the users’ needs to the quality of information exchange with the rational consumption of natural resources. An example of data storage technology is given. Practical relevance. The results can be useful for specialists involved in the design and operation of high-performance computing, storage and distribution of data, developing the ways of improvement for the effectiveness of existing communications, including mobile and optical communications, methods and algorithms for collecting, storing and smart analysis of large amounts of data, introduction of new information technologies.
PEOPLE RETRIEVAL BY MEANS OF COMPOSITE PICTURES: PROBLEM STATE-OF-THE-ART AND TECHNOLOGIES Kukharev Georgy A, Matveev Yuri Nikolaevich, Nadezhda L. Shchegoleva
123
We discuss the problem of people retrieval by means of composite pictures constructed according to descriptive portrait. An overview of the problem state-of-the-art is provided beginning from the basic concepts and terminology to a modern technology for composite picture creation, real-world scenarios and search results. The development history of systems for forming composite portraits (photo robots and sketches) and the ideas implemented in these systems are provided. The problem of automatic comparison of composite pictures with the original ones is discussed, and the reasons for unattainability of stable retrieval of originals by a composite picture in real-world scenarios are revealed. Requirements to composite pictures databases in addition to the existing benchmark databases of facial images and also methods for implementation of such databases are formulated. Approaches for generation of sketches population from an initial one that increase effectiveness of identikit-based photo image retrieval systems are proposed. The method of similarity index increasing in the couple identikit-photograph based on computation of an average identikit from the created population is provided. It is shown that such composite pictures are more similar to original portraits and their use in the discussed search problem can lead to good results. Thus the created identikits meet the requirements of the truthful scenario as take into account the possibility of incomplete information in descriptions. Results of experiments on CUHK Face Sketch and CUHK Face Sketch FERET databases and also open access identikits and corresponding photos are discussed.

ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGIES

EXTENDED SPEECH EMOTION RECOGNITION AND PREDICTION Anagnostopoulos Theodoros , Sergey E. Khoruzhnikov, Grudinin Vladimir A., Skourlas Christos
137
Humans are considered to reason and act rationally and that is believed to be their fundamental difference from the rest of the living entities. Furthermore, modern approaches in the science of psychology underline that humans as a thinking creatures are also sentimental and emotional organisms. There are fifteen universal extended emotions plus neutral emotion: hot anger, cold anger, panic, fear, anxiety, despair, sadness, elation, happiness, interest, boredom, shame, pride, disgust, contempt and neutral position. The scope of the current research is to understand the emotional state of a human being by capturing the speech utterances that one uses during a common conversation. It is proved that having enough acoustic evidence available the emotional state of a person can be classified by a set of majority voting classifiers. The proposed set of classifiers is based on three main classifiers: kNN, C4.5 and SVM RBF Kernel. This set achieves better performance than each basic classifier taken separately. It is compared with two other sets of classifiers: one-against-all (OAA) multiclass SVM with Hybrid kernels and the set of classifiers which consists of the following two basic classifiers: C5.0 and Neural Network. The proposed variant achieves better performance than the other two sets of classifiers. The paper deals with emotion classification by a set of majority voting classifiers that combines three certain types of basic classifiers with low computational complexity. The basic classifiers stem from different theoretical background in order to avoid bias and redundancy which gives the proposed set of classifiers the ability to generalize in the emotion domain space.
146
Implementation of redundant unit for motor drive control based on programmable logic devices is discussed. Continuous redundancy method is used. As compared to segregated standby redundancy and whole system standby redundancy, such method provides preservation of all unit functions in case of redundancy and gives the possibility for continuous monitoring of major and redundant elements. Example of that unit is given. Electric motor drive control channel block diagram contains two control units – the major and redundant; it also contains four power supply units. Control units programming was carried out using automata-based approach. Electric motor drive control channel model was developed; it provides complex simulation of control state-machine and power converter. Through visibility and hierarchy of finite state machines debug time was shortened as compared to traditional programming. Control state-machine description using hardware description language is required for its synthesis with FPGA-devices vendor design software. This description was generated automatically by MATLAB software package. To verify results two prototype control units, two prototype power supply units, and device mock-up were developed and manufactured. Units were installed in the device mock-up. Prototype units were created in accordance with requirements claimed to deliverable hardware. Control channel simulation and tests results in the perfect state and during imitation of major element fault are presented. Automata-based approach made it possible to observe and debug control state-machine transitions during simulation of transient processes, occurring at imitation of faults. Results of this work can be used in development of fault tolerant electric motor drive control channels.

MODELING AND SIMULATION

153
The paper deals with an approach to finite volume discretization of unsteady Navier-Stokes equations on unstructured meshes, and its advantages and development prospects are discussed. Features of inviscid and viscous flux discretization and temporal derivatives are considered. The advantages of the proposed approach include: the ability to operate on both structured and unstructured meshes; usage of high-order finite difference schemes in time and space; selection of median control volume for discretization of governing equations; application of expressions for calculation of the gradient and pseudo-laplasian making it possible to obtain more accurate results on highly stretched meshes in the boundary layer; writing of equations for the calculation of fluxes through the faces of interior and boundary control volumes in the same form, that simplify software implementation. This approach gives the possibility to implement a strategy of mesh adaptation taking into account the features of the certain flow and gives wide opportunities to parallelize computations. Possibilities of the developed approach are demonstrated on the example of the problem solution related to simulation of unsteady flows in the gas turbine engines.
MULTILEVEL RECURRENT MODEL FOR HIERARCHICAL CONTROL OF COMPLEX REGIONAL SECURITY Masloboev Andrey V, Putilov Vladimir Alexandrovich, Sioutine Alexei V,
163
Subject of research. The research goal and scope are development of methods and software for mathematical and computer modeling of the regional security information support systems as multilevel hierarchical systems. Such systems are characterized by loosely formalization, multiple-aspect of descendent system processes and their interconnectivity, high level dynamics and uncertainty. The research methodology is based on functional-target approach and principles of multilevel hierarchical system theory. The work considers analysis and structural-algorithmic synthesis problem-solving of the multilevel computer-aided systems intended for management and decision-making information support in the field of regional security. Main results. A hierarchical control multilevel model of regional socio-economic system complex security has been developed. The model is based on functional-target approach and provides both formal statement and solving, and practical implementation of the automated information system structure and control algorithms synthesis problems of regional security management optimal in terms of specified criteria. An approach for intralevel and interlevel coordination problem-solving in the multilevel hierarchical systems has been proposed on the basis of model application. The coordination is provided at the expense of interconnection requirements satisfaction between the functioning quality indexes (objective functions), which are optimized by the different elements of multilevel systems. That gives the possibility for sufficient coherence reaching of the local decisions, being made on the different control levels, under decentralized decision-making and external environment high dynamics. Recurrent model application provides security control mathematical models formation of regional socioeconomic systems, functioning under uncertainty. Practical relevance. The model implementation makes it possible to automate synthesis realization of the software executive environment for decision-making information and analytical support in the field of regional security. The model can find further application within mathematical and computer modeling methodology development of the multilevel hierarchical systems for security control of complex systems.
MODELING OF MANUFACTURING ERRORS FOR PIN-GEAR ELEMENTS OF PLANETARY GEARBOX Egorov Ivan M., Aleksanin Sergey A, Fedosovsky Mikhail E., Kryazheva Natalya P.
171
Theoretical background for calculation of k-h-v type cycloid reducers was developed relatively long ago. However, recently the matters of cycloid reducer design again attracted heightened attention. The reason for that is that such devices are used in many complex engineering systems, particularly, in mechatronic and robotics systems. The development of advanced technological capabilities for manufacturing of such reducers today gives the possibility for implementation of essential features of such devices: high efficiency, high gear ratio, kinematic accuracy and smooth motion. The presence of an adequate mathematical model gives the possibility for adjusting kinematic accuracy of the reducer by rational selection of manufacturing tolerances for its parts. This makes it possible to automate the design process for cycloid reducers with account of various factors including technological ones. A mathematical model and mathematical technique have been developed giving the possibility for modeling the kinematic error of the reducer with account of multiple factors, including manufacturing errors. The errors are considered in the way convenient for prediction of kinematic accuracy early at the manufacturing stage according to the results of reducer parts measurement on coordinate measuring machines. During the modeling, the wheel manufacturing errors are determined by the eccentricity and radius deviation of the pin tooth centers circle, and the deviation between the pin tooth axes positions and the centers circle. The satellite manufacturing errors are determined by the satellite eccentricity deviation and the satellite rim eccentricity. Due to the collinearity, the pin tooth and pin tooth hole diameter errors and the satellite tooth profile errors for a designated contact point are integrated into one deviation. Software implementation of the model makes it possible to estimate the pointed errors influence on satellite rotation angle error and reasonable selection of accuracy parameters for technological processes related to reducer parts manufacture. Additionally, it gives the possibility for estimation of the reducer kinematic error according to measurements by means of a coordinate measuring machine and diagnostics of reducer parts manufacturing errors by means of its kinematogram analysis. The model is implemented as a program developed in Microsoft Visual C++ 6.0 environment. Obtained results have found their application in CAD of cycloid reducers.

INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES IN EDUCATION

SUPPORT PROBLEM FOR COGNITIVE FUNCTIONS IN THE E-LEARNING Liubov S. Lysitsina, Lyamin Andrey Vladimirovich, Bystritsky Alexander , Martynikhin Ivan A.
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Successful development of such important human cognitive functions as attention, perception and information processing speed, working and long-term memory, thinking, etc. is a necessary foundation for increasing the effectiveness of e-learning. One way for further developments of students' cognitive functions in the process of e-learning consists in computer cognitive training sessions, which are included in the individual learning paths to promote a learner to the successful implementation of specific learning tasks of e-course. Analysis of the estimating problems for cognitive training effects (severity, stability and transfer) is done and the ways for their solution are proposed. It is shown that the biological basis for cognitive training effects consists in the processes of neuroplasticity of the brain that influence the duration and intensity of training. An approach to the organization of research for the effects of cognitive training, based on the usage of random methods is suggested. The prospects of game mechanics application for cognitive training implementation in elearning are shown. A detailed analysis of the approaches to the training of the basic cognitive functions, including working memory of learners, is carried out. The practical significance of this paper is to identify priorities for research and development of cognitive training in e-learning.

BRIEF PAPERS

185
The paper deals with possibility of mode structure control for light scattering in a twisted strip fiber by variation its space geometry. Unlike the known diffraction profiling, an approach is proposed based on control of fiber optic discontinuities caused by fiber twist. On the example of spiral pilling of a twisted strip we show the possibility of distribution changing for light scattering intensity on its output by changing of pilling parameters: radius and winding step. Fiber geometry alteration leads to the alteration for a number of optical modes. The increase of a bending radius and winding step of a fiber leads to the growth of the modes number. Regular optical fields and speckles are registered within this work. Gradual intensity change is observed (both, decrease and increase) from the beam centre to its edges.
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