Summaries of the Issue

PHOTONICS AND OPTOINFORMATICS

THE INFLUENCE OF PLASMONIC AND DIELECTRIC INCLUSIONS ON ANTIREFLECTIVE PROPERTIES OF HOMOGENEOUS COATINGS FOR SILICON PHOTOVOLTAIC STRUCTURES Baryshnikova Ksenia V., Petrov Mihail I, Babicheva Viktoriya E, Chebykin Alexander V., Belov Pavel Alexandrovich
767
Subject of Study. Theoretical analysis of the efficiency for the antireflective coatings based on plasmonic silver (Ag) and dielectric silicon (Si) nanoparticles is presented. We observe the increase of light absorption in the active layer, which is related to the optical resonant properties of considered nanoparticles. Characteristic property of the studied composite layer is its ability to combine the functions of electric contacts and anti-reflective coating. Method. Numerical calculations were performed in CST Microwave Studio with FDFD method (Finite Difference in Frequency Domain). The optical parameters of materials were extracted from the experimentally measured data available in literature. Geometrical parameters of composite layer – size and location of particles – were varied. Comparison of light absorption efficiency for different coatings on top of the active layer is presented: the homogeneous Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) layer, ITO layer with the spherical nanoparticle inclusions on the ITO surface, ITO layer with spherical nanoparticle bulk inclusions. Periodical lattices of particles with sizes of range between 15 and 80 nm were considered. Nanoparticles of this size have dominant dipole response. Main Results. Numerical calculations have shown that nanoparticle inclusions cause significant deformation of the absorption spectra with appearing of resonant pecularities in the wavelength range equal to 300-800 nm. It originates from the nanoparticle resonant features, which are similar to the resonant features of isolated nanoparticles. Absorption in the active layer decreases sharply at the resonant wavelength. Resonant response of nanoparticles placed on the ITO surface differs significally from the isolated ones: the resonant frequency and Q-factor decrease. It was shown that absorption in the active layer decreases by 25 % when the size of Ag and Si particles increases. Ag nanoparticles, placed in ITO layer on top of the active layer, show a monotonic decrease of integral absorption down to 30% with decreasing of nanoparticle size. Si nanoparticles of 50 nm radius have maximal influence on the absorption. Practical Significance. These results may be useful for understanding the physics of antireflective composite coatings with inclusions of nanoparticles for developers of silicon solar cells. 
775
Numerical method for calculation of forward and backward waves of intense few-cycle laser pulses propagating in an optical waveguide with dispersion and cubic nonlinearity of electronic and electronic-vibration nature is described. Simulations made with the implemented algorithm show that accounting for Raman nonlinearity does not lead to qualitative changes in behavior of the backward wave. Speaking about quantitative changes, the increase of efficiency of energy transfer from the forward wave to the backward wave is observed. Presented method can be also used to simulate interaction of counterpropagating pulses.
782
The paper deals with mathematical model of linear and nonlinear processes occurring at the propagation of femtosecond laser pulses in the vitreous of the human eye. Methods of computing modeling are applied for the nonlinear spectral equation solution describing the dynamics of a two-dimensional TE-polarized radiation in a homogeneous isotropic medium with cubic fast-response nonlinearity without the u retina when passing through the vitreous body of the eye. Dependence between the pulse duration on the retina has been revealed and the duration of the input pulse and the values of power density at which there is self-focusing have been found. It is shown that the main mechanism of radiation damage with the use of titanium-sapphire laser is photoionization. The results coincide with those obtained by the other scientists, and are usable for creation Russian laser safety standards for femtosecond laser systems.sage of slowly varying envelope approximation. Environments close to the optical media parameters of the eye were used for the simulation. The model of femtosecond radiation propagation takes into account the process dynamics for dispersion broadening of pulses in time and the occurence of the self-focusing near the 

OPTICAL ENGINEERING

ELECTRON MICROSCOPIC INVESTIGATION OF YTTRIUM ALUMINUM GARNET POWDERS Y3AL5O12, SYNTHESIZED BY SOL–GEL METHOD Baranchikov Alexander E, Maslov Vladislav A, Shcherbakov Shcherbakov V, Usachyov Vadim A, Kononenko Nina E, Fedorov Pavel P, Dukelskiy Konstantin V
789
Subject of Study. The paper presents results of characterization for neodymium doped yttrium aluminum garnet nanopowders - YAG:Nd3+ by the method of scanning electronic microscopy. Method. Synthesis of YAG:Nd3+ was carried out by sol-gel method from nitrate or acetate - nitrate solutions with addition of some organic compounds and ammonia as well. Such substances were used as the source ones: oxides of neodymium and yttrium with the content of the basic substance equal to 99.999 %; organic compounds: citric acid with the content of the basic substance not less than 99.0 %; ethylene glycol (99.5%); the ammonium lauryl sulfate (99.0 %); urea (99.0 %) of Alfa Aesar, Fluka, Aldrich companies. Oxides of yttrium and neodymium (5 at. %) were dissolved in 50% acetic acid, nitrate aluminum was added with a view to the resulting product Y2,85Nd0,15Al5,0O12, the solution was stirred and heated to 60С before reaching its transparency and uniformity. The weight of the portion corresponding to the stoichiometry YAG was 2.0 g. 50 % aqueous solutions of organic substances or 5% NH4OH in a weight ratio of 1:1 to the weight of the garnet were added in aqueous solutions, placed into glass cups. The solutions were thoroughly mixed first using a conventional stirrer, then on ultrasonic installation with simultaneous 60 С heating for 2 hours. Drying of solutions to the consistency of a powder or a thick gel was carried out at 110 С. Then the samples were placed into platinum cups and annealed in a tube furnace at 950 - 1050 С for the period from 0.5 to 2 hours. Additional annealing of the powders in the air at 950 - 1060С were carried out for the purpose of powders clarifying for residual amorphous carbon removal. Main Results. The synthesized powder precursors and powders after annealing were examined using a polarizing microscope to identify anisotropic crystalline phases. X-ray analysis of the synthesized samples was carried out on a DRON - 4 and UDR - 63 diffractometers, radiation λCu Kα. Carl Zeiss NVision 40 electron microscope was used for the study by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results indicate significant effects of additives in the original acetate - nitrate solutions on the size and morphology of the particles during the synthesis of powders of yttrium aluminum garnet by sol-gel method. Relatively large particles not susceptible to the mutual sintering were obtained by using ethylene glycol and ammonium lauryl sulfate as additives. Practical Relevance. Powders of yttrium aluminum garnet synthesized by the sol-gel method using ethylene glycol and ammonium lauryl sulfate as additives can be of the greatest interest for creation of YAG:Nd3+ laser ceramics.
OUT-OF-FOCUS REGION SEGMENTATION OF 2D SURFACE IMAGES WITH THE USE OF TEXTURE FEATURES Trambitsky Konstantin V, Anding Katarina A, Polte Galina A, Garten Daniel , Musalimov Victor M
796
A segmentation method of out-of-focus image regions for processed metal surfaces, based on focus textural features is proposed. Such regions contain small amount of useful information. The object of study is a metal surface, which has a cone shape. Some regions of images are blurred because the depth of field of industrial cameras is limited. Automatic removal of out-of-focus regions in such images is one of the possible solutions to this problem. Focus texture features were used to calculate characteristics that describe the sharpness of particular image area. Such features are used in autofocus systems of microscopes and cameras, and their application for segmentation of out-of-focus regions of images is unusual. Thirty-four textural features were tested on a set of metal surface images with out-of-focus regions. The most useful features, usable for segmentation of an image more accurately, are an average grey level and spatial frequency. Proposed segmentation method of out-of-focus image regions for metal surfaces can be successfully applied for evaluation of processing quality of materials with the use of industrial cameras. The method has simple implementation and high calculating speed. 
IMPACT STUDY OF ANISOTROPIC OPTICAL FIBERS WINDING WITH DIFFERENT TENSION VALUE ON THE H-PARAMETER INVARIANCE DEGREE Azamat B. Mukhtubayev, Aksarin Stanislav Mikhailovich, Vladimir E. Strigalev, Novikov Roman L
803
Subject of Research. We have investigated the effect of anisotropic optical fibers winding with an elliptical sheath subjecting to stress on the H-parameter invariance degree. This type of optical fiber is used in the manufacture of fiber loop in fiber-optic gyroscopes. Method of Research. The method of research is based on the application of Michelson polarization scanning interferometer as a measuring device. Superluminescent diode with a central wavelength of 1575 nm and a half-width of the spectrum equal to 45 nm is used as a radiation source. The studies were carried out with anisotropic optical fiber with 50 m long elliptical sheath subjecting to stress. The fiber was wound with one layer turn to turn on the coil with a diameter of 18 cm, which is used in the design of fiber-optic gyroscope. The tension force of the optical fiber was controlled during winding on a special machine. Main Results. It was found that at the increase of tension force from 0.05 N to 0.8 H the value of H-parameter increases from 7×10-6 1/m up to 178×10-6 1/m, respectively; i.e. the coupling coefficient of orthogonal modes in the test fiber is being increased. Thus, it is necessary to consider the longitudinal tension force of fiber in the design and manufacture of the fiber-optic sensors of high accuracy class: the less the fiber winding power, the higher invariance degree of distributed H-parameter. The longitudinal tension force of anisotropic optical fiber with elliptical sheath subjecting to stress equal to 0.2 N is recommended in the process of designing fiber-optic gyroscopes. Practical Relevance. The proposed method of Michelson scanning interferometer is usable in the production process for quality determination of the optical fiber winding: no local defects, value controlling of fiber H-parameter. 
CENTRAL WAVELENGTH ADJUSTMENT OF LIGHT EMITTING SOURCE IN INTERFEROMETRIC SENSORS BASED ON FIBER-OPTIC BRAGG GRATINGS Aleynik Artem S, Kireenkov Alexander Yu. , Mekhrengin Mikhail Viktorovich, Chirgin Maksim Alexandrovich, Belikin Mikhail N
809
The paper is focused on the investigation of fiber-optic interferometric sensor based on the array of fiber Bragg gratings. Reflection spectra displacement mechanism of the fiber Bragg gratings under the external temperature effects and the static pressure is described. The experiment has shown that reflection spectra displacement of Bragg gratings reduces the visibility of the interference pattern. A method of center wavelength adjustment is proposed for the optical radiation source in accord ance with the current Bragg gratings reflection spectra based on the impulse relative modulation of control signal for the Peltier element controller. The semiconductor vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser controlled by a pump driver is used as a light source. The method is implemented by the Peltier element controller regulating and stabilizing the light source temperature, and a programmable logic-integrated circuit monitoring the Peltier element controller. The experiment has proved that the proposed method rendered possible to regulate the light source temperature at a pitch of 0.05 K and adjust the optical radiation source center wavelength at a pitch of 0.05 nm. Experimental results have revealed that the central wavelength of the radiation adjustment at a pitch of 0.005 nm gives the possibility for the capacity of the array consisting of four opticalfiber sensors based on the fiber Bragg gratings. They are formed in one optical fiber under the Bragg grating temperature change from 0° C to 300° C and by the optical fiber mechanical stretching by the force up to 2 N.
817
Subject of Research. This paper discusses numerical simulation of spiral beams. Spiral beams have been experimentally obtained with the use of liquid crystal spatial light modulators (LCD SLM). The ability of dynamical change for the laser beam parameters has been studied. Method. Spiral beams are traditionally obtained by means of static masks defining the amplitude and phase distribution of the beam. The paper deals with modernized method with the use of two LCD SLMs. Modulators form separately the amplitude and phase distribution of the laser beam. Main Results. Numerical modeling of space spiral beams with different amplitude and phase characteristics has been carried out with the use of VirtualLab 5.0 software package manufactured by LightTrans GmbH. Simulation results are compared to the results of a natural experiment. Experimental results are in good agreement with computer simulation. It is shown that LCD SLMs application gives the possibility for dynamical change of the spiral beam parameters, their structure and the dependence of rotation angle on the distance. Distribution phase inversion leads to a change in the rotation direction of the laser beam and, therefore, to a change in the direction of its orbital angular momentum. Practical Relevance. The use of spatial modulators makes it possible to change dynamically the beam parameters, including rotation direction change. The results can be applied for solution of problems related to laser manipulating of microparticles, as well as the problems of determining the phase inhomogeneities of transparent objects.
825
Simulation results for on-board optical system of a space mini-vehicle with laser propulsion are presented. This system gives the possibility for receiving theremote laser radiation power independently of a system telescope mutual orientation to the vehicle orbiting direction. The on-board optical system is designed with the use of such optical elements as optical hinges and turrets. The system incorporates the optical switch that is a special optical system adapting optically both receiving telescope and laser propulsion engines. Modeling and numerical simulation of the system have been performed with the use of ZEMAX software (Radiant Ltd). The object matter of calculations lied in size definition of system optical elements, requirements to accuracy of their manufacturing and reciprocal adjusting to achieve an efficient radiation energy delivery to laser propulsion engine. Calculations have been performed with account to the limitations on the mini-vehicle mass, its overall dimensions, and radiation threshold density of the optical elements utilized. The requirements to the laser beam quality at the entrance aperture of laser propulsion engine have been considered too. State-of-the-art optical technologies make it possible to manufacture space reflectors made of CO-115M glassceramics with weight-reducing coefficient of 0.72 and the radiation threshold of 5 J/cm2 for the radiation with a 1.064 microns wavelength at 10-20 ns pulse duration. The optimal diameter of a receiving telescope primary mirror has been 0.5 m when a coordinated transmitting telescope diameter is equal to 1 m. This provides the reception of at least 84% of laser energy. The main losses of radiation energy are caused by improper installation of receiving telescope mirrors and by in-process errors arising at manufacturing the telescope mirrors with a parabolic surface. It is shown that requirements to the in-process admissible errors for the on-board optical system elements and to their mutual adjustment accuracy are enhanced, but they are feasible at the same time. The proposed onboard optical system are usable both for space mini-vehicle with laser propulsion and for wireless technology of energy delivery through space with the use of lasers. 
831
Subject of Research. The influence of radiation spectra from the source of artificial night light on colorimetric characteristics of image perceived by the pilot in the aircraft cockpit has been studied. The image is displayed on the LCD screen of multifunctional color indication equipment unit. Night illumination of the cockpit is performed with the use of artificial lamps of red, green, blue and, rarely, white light. Method. Any given color to be displayed on the screen is perceived by an observer differently with presence and absence of external illumination. When external light of white color is used, perceived color depends upon color temperature of the light source; if illumination source has any arbitrary spectral characteristics, then perceivable color depends upon whole spectral content of the used source. The color, perceived by an observer, is formed as the mixture of the color displayed on the screen (image element color) with the color presented by diffuse reflection of external illumination source from the surface of the screen. The brightness of both colors is added. Mathematical expressions, that define calculation rule for chromaticity coordinates of color perceived by an observer, are based on the Grassmann’s law of additive color mixing. Quantitative analysis of the effect, caused by radiation spectra from an external source of artificial light on color gamut area, corresponding to image, perceived by an observer, has been performed through simulation in MathCad 15.0. Main Results. It was shown, that the color palette of on-board indication equipment, obtained on automated working place for any preset source of external illumination of fluorescent spectrum, corresponding to white light, is not usable correctly in the aircraft night flight mode. An observer loses ability to perceive properly saturated primary colors of red and blue in the case of green-blue light source of external illumination; and the same issue occurs with green and blue for red light source. Using of sources with high illumination level of “warm” white color causes significant shift of the colors perceived by an observer, from the area of saturated blue and green colors in the direction towards the white point defined by illumination source. Using the sources with high illumination level of smooth white color and also with the white color, which white point coordinates coincide with the white point coordinates the color gamut triangle of the tested screen, lead to offset of colors, perceived by an observer, equally for each primary color (red, green, blue) and yellow, cyan and magenta as well. And finally, dealing with sources with high illumination level of “cold” white color, significant offset of colors, perceived by an observer, occurs; those seeming colors are drifting from the area of saturated red and green colors in the direction towards the white point defined by illumination source. Practical Relevance. The results are usable by developers of indication equipment and the manufacturers of LCD panels for colorimetric calculations with account of an influence of external illumination with various spectral content on the screen.v

AUTOMATIC CONTROLAND ROBOTICS

839
The paper deals with modeling of dynamic systems with modulation by the possibilities of state-space method. This method, being the basis of modern control theory, is based on the possibilities of vector-matrix formalism of linear algebra and helps to solve various problems of technical control of continuous and discrete nature invariant with respect to the dimension of their “input-output” objects. Unfortunately, it turned its back on the wide group of control systems, which hardware environment modulates signals. The marked system deficiency is partially offset by this paper, which proposes Kronecker vector-matrix representations for purposes of system representation of processes with signal modulation. The main result is vector-matrix representation of processes with modulation with no formal difference from continuous systems. It has been found that abilities of these representations could be effectively used in research of systems with modulation. Obtained model representations of processes with modulation are best adapted to the state-space method. These approaches for counting eigenvalues of Kronecker matrix summaries, that are matrix basis of model representations of processes described by Kronecker vector products, give the possibility to use modal direction in research of dynamics for systems with modulation. It is shown that the use of controllability for eigenvalues of general matrixes applied to Kronecker structures enabled to divide successfully eigenvalue spectrum into directed and not directed components. Obtained findings including design problems for models of dynamic processes with modulation based on the features of Kronecker vector and matrix structures, invariant with respect to the dimension of input-output relations, are applicable in the development of alternate current servo drives.  

MATERIAL SCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGIES

PERMITTIVITY DISPERSION FEATURES OF A NEMATIC LIQUID CRYSTAL WITH QUANTUM DOTS Shcherbinin Dmitry P, Konshina Elena A, Kurochkina Marharita A
849
Subject of Research. The paper deals with research of dielectric properties of suspensions for a nematic liquid crystal (LC) with positive dielectric anisotropy Δε = 10.5, doped with semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) CdSe / ZnS, and dependence on their concentration in the range of 0.05-0.3 wt. %. Methods. The studies were carried out by the method of dielectric spectroscopy. A special flat titanium cell with the distance between the electrodes equal to 250 μm was used for the measurement. The voltage was applied to the electrodes. The dispersion of parallel and normal parts of the real and imaginary components of the dielectric permittivity was measured in the range from 50 Hz to 6.5 MHz at the orienting magnetic field equal to 4 • 105 A / m applied to a cell. Main Results. Deviation of the permittivity spectra of suspensions with QDs concentration growth was observed from a spectrum of the pure LC. It was caused by losses of free ions on the conductivity at frequencies below 103 Hz. The shift of a peak in the suspension spectrum at frequencies above 106 Hz is associated with relaxation of the LC molecules orientation. It has been shown that  lowering in the range of 103 -104 Hz with concentration increasing up to 0.3 wt. % did not exceed 4%. Practical Relevance Obtained results give the possibility to explain the change in macroscopic properties of the liquid crystal as a result of doping.  
856
Glasses with metallic and semi-conductive nano-particles appear to be perspective non-linear and luminescent materials of photonics. It was shown in theory that composite optical materials containing semi-conductive CdS-core with Ag shell (or vice versa) are optimal for enhancement of non-linear Kerr effect. Interaction of such an ensemble of particles leads to the forming of Ag island structures on the CdS particle, and formation of acanthite Ag2S on the two phases border (CdS-Ag) is minimal. In glasses synthesis of CdS quantum dots occurred due to thermal treatment close to glass transition temperature; introduction of silver was realized by low-temperature ion exchange (LIE). The main object of this work is investigation of Ag+ -LIE effect on the growth of CdS nano-particles. Two glasses were explored in this work: without CdS (glass 1) and with CdS (glass 2), processed by LIE at the temperature of 320°С for 10, 20 and 30 minutes and subsequent heat treatment at temperatures of 410°С and 420°С. In case of glass 1, intensive luminescence appears as a result of LIE, and subsequent heat treatment results in surface resonance at λ=410 nm. In case of glass 2, absorbance spectra change appears that is specific for formation of acanthite and weak luminescence shifting to long-wavelength region (from 550 to 700 nm) as a result of applying LIE and heat treatment. It indicates the growth of CdS quantum dots. Experiment has shown that quantum efficiency increases to 70% for glass 2 containing CdS quantum dots without LIE, while glass that contains silver shows steep decrease of quantum efficiency to 0%. That decrease is caused by formation of acanthite Ag2S on the surface of CdS quantum dot. 

COMPUTER SCIENCE

EFFICIENCY EVALUATION OF ENTERPRISE INFORMATION SYSTEMS WITH NON-UNIFORM LOAD Kalinin Igor V, Maharevs Eduards , Muravyeva-Vitkovskaya Ludmila A
863
The paper deals with the problem of characteristics evaluation for enterprise information systems at the design stage. In the design of ERP-systems the most interest characteristic is not the average time, but the probability of timely delivery of different type messages (for example, command, service, multimedia, files, etc.) from the sender to the recipient. In addition,the possibility of using the priority information management built on the basis of service disciplines of general form with mixed priorities needs to be considered. An open queuing network with non-uniform data flow is used for solution of this problem. The method for calculation of information systems characteristics is proposed based on the decomposition of the network model. The end results obtained with this approach and by means of priority management are approximate because different classes of message streams at the output and input nodes of the computer system differ from the simple ones. However, result errors of the proposed analytical method are in acceptable limits for engineering calculations as it was shown by simulation in a wide range of parameters corresponding to real systems. Obtained results are usable for optimization problem solution of data transmission networks in modern information systems, involving routing algorithm definition and priorities specification for different classes of messages to provide given delivery time.
SEMSIN SEMANTIC AND SYNTACTIC PARSER Boyarsky Kirill , Evgeniy A. Kanevskiy
869
The paper deals with the principle of operation for SemSin semantic and syntactic parser creating a dependency tree for the Russian language sentences. The parser consists of 4 blocks: a dictionary, morphological analyzer, production rules and lexical analyzer. An important logical part of the parser is pre-syntactical module, which harmonizes and complements morphological analysis results, separates the text paragraphs into individual sentences, and also carries out predisambiguation. Characteristic feature of the presented parser is an open type of control – it is done by means of a set of production rules. A varied set of commands provides the ability to both morphological and semantic-syntactic analysis of the sentence. The paper presents the sequence of rules usage and examples of their work. Specific feature of the rules is the decision making on establishment of syntactic links with simultaneous removal of the morphological and semantic ambiguity. The lexical analyzer provides the execution of commands and rules, and manages the parser in manual or automatic modes of the text analysis. In the first case, the analysis is performed interactively with the possibility of step-by-step execution of the rules and scanning the resulting parse tree. In the second case, analysis results are filed in an xml-file. Active usage of syntactic and semantic dictionary information gives the possibility to reduce significantly the ambiguity of parsing. In addition to marking the text, the parser is also usable as a tool for information extraction from natural language texts.  
877
Application suitability for one of the intelligent methods for risk management of software projects has been shown based on the review of existing algorithms for fuzzy inference in the field of applied problems. Information sources in the management of software projects are analyzed; major and minor risks are highlighted. The most critical parameters have been singled out giving the possibility to estimate the occurrence of an adverse situations (project duration, the frequency of customer’s requirements changing, work deadlines, experience of developers’ participation in such projects and others.). The method of qualitative fuzzy description based on fuzzy logic has been developed for analysis of these parameters. Evaluation of possible situations and knowledge base formation rely on a survey of experts. The main limitations of existing automated systems have been identified in relation to their applicability to risk management in the software design. Theoretical research set the stage for software system that makes it possible to automate the risk management process for software projects. The developed software system automates the process of fuzzy inference in the following stages: rule base formation of the fuzzy inference systems, fuzzification of input variables, aggregation of sub-conditions, activation and accumulation of conclusions for fuzzy production rules, variables defuzzification. The result of risk management automation process in the software design is their quantitative and qualitative assessment and expert advice for their minimization. Practical significance of the work lies in the fact that implementation of the developed automated system gives the possibility for performance improvement of software projects.  
886
Subject of Research. The paper deals with the problem of lip region image reconstruction from speech signal by means of Partial Least Squares regression. Such problems arise in connection with development of audio-visual speech processing methods. Audio-visual speech consists of acoustic and visual components (called modalities). Applications of audio-visual speech processing methods include joint modeling of voice and lips’ movement dynamics, synchronization of audio and video streams, emotion recognition, liveness detection. Method. Partial Least Squares regression was applied to solve the posed problem. This method extracts components of initial data with high covariance. These components are used to build  regression model. Advantage of this approach lies in the possibility of achieving two goals: identification of latent interrelations between initial data components (e.g. speech signal and lip region image) and approximation of initial data component as a function of another one. Main Results. Experimental research on reconstruction of lip region images from speech signal was carried out on VidTIMIT audio-visual speech database. Results of the experiment showed that Partial Least Squares regression is capable of solving reconstruction problem. Practical Significance. Obtained findings give the possibility to assert that Partial Least Squares regression is successfully applicable for solution of vast variety of audio-visual speech processing problems: from synchronization of audio and video streams to liveness detection.

ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGIES

893
The paper presents research results of forming accuracy for diametrical sizes at gear shaping with stepped cutter and the traditional method. Analysis of static technological dimensional pitch size chain of wheels being cut is performed. It was revealed that the most of transmission errors of the wheels, formed by the traditional gear-shaped cutter are caused by manufacturing and installation error of the cutter and result from the formation of each tooth of the wheel with a certain tool. This is not the case with gear shaping by step cutter since at that, the profiles of all gear teeth are formed by means of tooth profile mostly remote from the tool rotation axis. Analysis of occurrence of setting-up errors typical for the above gear shaping methods has been performed. At gear shaping with stepped cutter there are no setting-up error components. It was revealed that this fact causes the absence of errors in the tool position before its each double motion. The accuracy of diametrical sizes increases. Formation mechanism of tool installation errors and workpiece are also given and their analysis is presented. Findings in the field of gear shaping with stepped cutter comply with results of research carried out by the other authors in the field of traditional gear shaping.
MASS FLOW METER FOR LIQUIDS Naumchik Igor I, Kinzhagulov Igor Yu, Kren Alexander P, Stepanova Kseniya A
900
Subject of Study. The paper deals with problems of determination for the mass flow rate of corrosive and unstable liquids, taking into account their actual density. Methods. Experimental and theoretical research method is proposed for the appearance justification of constriction flow meter for liquids based on the Venturi tube. Main Results. A new design of constriction flow meter for liquids based on the Venturi tube has been developed, outstanding with a device for measuring the density of liquid that makes it possible to determine its mass flow. Mass flow meter for liquids keeps versatility thanks to the combined composition; only constriction device is changing in its design, being calculated for a given composition of the liquid. Obtained dependencies of sound velocity on the controlled liquid concentration, gave the possibility to determine its actual density and pass on to mass flow calculation. Practical Relevance. Research results are usable in the design of mass flow meters for liquids, particularly, for corrosive and unstable ones. 

MODELING AND SIMULATION

907
A concept for organization and planning of computational experiment aimed at implementation of multivariate analysis of complex multifactor models is proposed. It is based on the generation of calculations tree. The logical and structural schemes of the tree are given and software tools, as well, for the automation of work with it: calculation generation, carrying out calculations and analysis of the obtained results. Computer modeling systems and such special-purpose systems as RACS and PRADIS do not solve the problems connected with effective carrying out of computational experiment, consisting of its organization, planning, execution and analysis of the results. Calculation data storage for computational experiment organization is proposed in the form of input and output data tree. Each tree node has a reference to the calculation of model step performed earlier. The storage of calculations tree is realized in a specially organized directory structure. A software tool is proposed for creating and modifying design scheme that stores the structure of one branch of the calculation tree with the view of effective planning of multivariate calculations. A set of special-purpose software tools gives the possibility for the quick generation and modification of the tree, addition of calculations with step-by-step change in the model factors. To perform calculations, software environment in the form of a graphical user interface for creating and modifying calculation script has been developed. This environment makes it possible to traverse calculation tree in a certain order and to perform serial and parallel initiation of computational modules. To analyze the results, software tool has been developed, operating on the base of the tag tree. It is a special tree that stores input and output data of the calculations in the set of changes form of appropriate model factors. The tool enables to select the factors and responses of the model at various steps and to form easyto-read tables and graphs of functions for the selected parameters. The proposed solution has been tested in the process of verification for “Prognoz_R” software, greatly simplifying the preparation and carrying out of the design calculations for analysis of the developed computational model. Thus, the proposed software tools, due to the lack of universal ready-made solutions, can serve as an effective replacement for manual carrying out of computational experiments. 
916
Subject of Research. Creation of asymptotic expansions for solutions of partial differential equations with small parameter reduces, usually, to consequent solving of the Sturm-Liouville problems chain. To find some term of the series, the non-homogeneous Sturm-Liouville problem with the inhomogeneity depending on the previous term needs to be solved. At the same time, the corresponding homogeneous problem has a non-trivial solution. Hence, the solvability problem occures for the non-homogeneous Sturm-Liouville problem for functions or formal power series. The paper deals with creation of such asymptotic expansions. Method. To prove the necessary condition, we use conventional integration technique of the whole equation and boundary conditions. To prove the sufficient condition, we create an appropriate Cauchy problem (which is always solvable) and analyze its solution. We deal with the general case of power series and make no hypotheses about the series convergence. Main Result. Necessary and sufficient conditions of solvability for the non-homogeneous Sturm-Liouville problem in general case for formal power series are proved in the paper. As a particular case, the result is valid for functions instead of formal power series. Practical Relevance. The result is usable at creation of the solutions for partial differential equation in the form of power series. The result is general and is applicable to particular cases of such solutions, e.g., to asymptotic series or to functions (convergent power series).
921
Subject of Study. The paper discusses the concept of inkjet systems application, also known as pneumonics, for automatic hydrostatic gas bearing control. Inkjet systems have the advantages over traditional control systems in those problems where the speed of traditional mechanical, electrical or hydraulic servomotors is not enough. Control of the shaft position in gas bearing with forced gas supply into the gap between the shaft and the bearing is typical for this class of problems. In this case, control means the pressure changing or flow rate of gas supplied to the gap by at least one of three axes at a frequency higher than the nominal speed of the shaft. Thus, high speed of response is required from the system. The objective of this work is to design a discrete jet element, testing of its geometry and switching characteristics. Main Results. The discrete inkjet element for oil-free non-contact transmission working on the refrigerant was designed. Relay transition process was modeled in the inkjet element with the use of numerical methods. The switching time has reached 0.2-0.3 ms; this is one order less than the requirements of aircraft control systems, which typically operate at a frequency of about 200 Hz. It is shown that periodic oscillations with high frequency occur when the control signal is injected with insufficient level of pressure. Therefore, a separate design task is to determine the minimum pressure allowable in the control channel. 
INTERFERENCE HYSTERESIS OF COUNTERPROPAGATING SHOCK WAVES AT A CHANGE IN MACH NUMBER Bulat Pavel V, Denissenko Petr V., Prodan Nikolai V., Upyrev Vladimir V.
930
Subject of Study. We study the interference of counterpropagating shock waves and oblique shock reflection from the wall. There are two fundamentally different interaction modes of counterpropagating shocks: four-wave regular and five-wave irregular ones. The transition from one mode to another can be abrupt or smooth; it can also be accompanied by hysteresis. Hysteresis is the existence of two different types of shock-wave structures with the same parameters of interference. The implementation of a particular decision depends on the direction and perhaps the rate of change of parameters. Hysteresis in the interference of counterpropagating shocks and oblique shock wave reflection from the wall has been studying since the mid-60s of the XX-th century, the most actively in the past 20 years. This is due to the development of new types of internal and mixed compression intakes, in particular, intended for high supersonic and hypersonic speeds. Despite of problem research for many years, many questions still remain unclarified and among them nonconcurrence of the numerical and physical experiment results with the data obtained by analytical theory of interference stationary gas-dynamic discontinuities, the effect of the rate change for parameters, the accuracy of calculations, the difference grid density. The present paper deals with the impact of two factors: the rank of difference grid and blurring degree of shock waves front. Main Results. Analytical and numerical calculations have shown that blurring of shock waves and the transition from small difference grid to a coarser one is accompanied by narrowing of the hysteresis domain, i.e. the transitions from regular to irregular reflection and backwards are more different from those predicted by the theory. Reducing the size of the difference grid cells leads to solution convergence to the results of interference theory of stationary gas-dynamic discontinuities. Practical Relevance. Obtained findings complement the interference theory of stationary gas-dynamic discontinuities and are usable in the design of advanced models of supersonic and hypersonic aircrafts.
ASYMMETRICAL INTERFERENCE OF COUNTER OBLIQUE SHOCK WAVES Bulat Pavel V, Denissenko Petr V., Upyrev Vladimir V.
942
Subject of Study. The paper deals with data on the interference of shock waves with different intensity and slope angles to the flow of them. This problem is related to the problem of designing air intakes to the internal compression and detonation combustion engines in stationary overdriven detonation wave. A regular form of interference and irregular Mach one are considered. Intensity calculations of reflected shock waves for both cases are given. As shown below, there is a possibility of a very large difference in the intensity of the reflected shocks. Main Results. We describe transition criteria from regular to irregular reflection of counter shocks: von Neumann criterion and a stationary Mach configuration criterion. Intensity dependences of the reflected intensity shocks from the interaction of colliding shock waves are presented both for the case of regular interaction, and irregular interference. We demonstrate intensity dependence of a reflected shock wave on the intensity of the two interacting shock waves, as in the transition from regular to irregular reflection, in accordance with von Neumann detaching criterion, and in accordance with a stationary Mach configuration criterion. In the first case, the transition is accompanied by an abrupt change in the intensity of the reflected shock; in the second case, the intensity varies in a continuous manner. Practical Relevance. The results supplement interference theory of stationary gas-dynamic discontinuities and are usable in the design of advanced air intakes of internal compression supersonic and hypersonic aircrafts.

BRIEF PAPERS

950
The paper deals with detection algorithm for rail vibroacoustic waves caused by approaching train on the background of increased noise. The urgency of algorithm development for train detection in view of increased rail noise, when railway lines are close to roads or road intersections is justified. The algorithm is based on the method of weak signals detection in a noisy environment. The information statistics ultimate expression is adjusted. We present the results of algorithm research and testing of the train approach alarm device that implements the proposed algorithm. The algorithm is prepared for upgrading the train approach alarm device “Signalizator-P". 

DISCUSSIONS

954
Problem statement ill-posedness in the paper by L.S. Konev et al. devoted to formation of backward wave at short laser pulse propagation in nonlinear media or fibers is specified. It is inconceivable in the correct problem statement to consider the radiation field at the medium entrance as a given function of time due to generation of backward wave in the medium, when the backward wave characteristics are target values. The proper evolution variable is time, and it is convenient to use the adopted finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method for backward wave calculation. 
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