Summaries of the Issue

OPTICAL AND OPTICAL ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS. OPTICAL TECHNOLOGIES

1
This article describes internal architecture of CCD line sensor. Dependencies between main sensor parameters are analyzed and the major direction for optimization of this kind of sensors is highlighted.
RANDOM ERROR EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH OF OPTICAL ELECTRONIC DOCK FLEXURE METER Alexey Aleev, Alexey Gorbatchyov, Korotaev Valery Viktorovich, Anton Pantyushin
7
The article deals with the scheme and operating principle of optical electronic dock flexure meter intended for continuous automated control of floating dock longitudinal flexure. The results of random error experimental research are presented.
11
  The article deals with an algorithm, combining procedures of interframe and intraframe signal processing in automated observation systems of moving objects in complicated background. The analysis of interconnected factors is given predetermining detection features. Dependencies are given on the basis of which control operational organization of decision rule is possible in the system with the ability of optimization and self-adaptation for algorithm parameters under varying conditions of observation in detection and the following observation regimes.
16
The analysis of photometer measurement error of reflectance factors for different integrating sphere design is done. The calculation of illuminance inside these spheres and on the sample surface is accomplished. Factors affecting on measurement error are considered. It is established that illuminance on the sample remains practically uniform for all considered sphere designs. The main photometric error is associated with a difference of samples reflection factors. The baffle usage doesn’t create the additional photometric error. 

PHOTONICS AND OPTICAL INFORMATICS

20
Influence of task pattern on the inner representation size and its spectral characteristics on the hypotheses adequacy, generated by the neural network with the connections based on the Fourier-holography scheme is considered. It is shown that hypotheses adequacy increases with the growth of generalized pattern frequency.
PHOTOINDUCED BRAGG DIFFRACTIVE STRUCTURES CREATION IN LITHIUM NIOBATE CRYSTAL USING ULTRAVIOLET NANOSECOND EXCIMER PULSE LASER Brunov Vyacheslav S, Varzhel Sergey V., Nikonorov Nikolay V. , Vladimir E. Strigalev
26
The article deals with holographic Bragg gratings creation method in lithium niobate crystals by excimer laser pulse illumination and the possibility оf its recording in different modes. The main parameters dependencies of obtained phase holographic elements from power and number of pulses are researched.
RESONANT MEDIUM RADIATION EXCITED BY ULTRA-SHORT LIGHT PULSE Arkhipov Mikhail V, Arkhipov Rostislav M, Yuri Tolmachev
30
Resonant medium radiation, initiated by an ultra-short light is considered. It is shown that under such superluminal excitation in the spectrum of medium radiation there are new frequencies, in addition to the resonance frequency of the medium oscillator. They depend on the spatial frequency oscillator distribution of and the angle of observation.

COMPONENTRY AND APPLIANCIES OF TECHNICAL SYSTEMS

35
Effect of porous silicon thin film formed by anode electrochemical etching of p-type area on spectral characteristic of silicon photodiode has been examined. It is shown that generated porous silicon layer results in significant increase of spectral sensitivity in the whole spectrum. Time modification of photodiode spectral sensitivity has been observed.
38
The nematic liquid crystals (NLCs) application to quartz resonators structural defects detecting at industrial conditions is described. Natural and artificial quartz structural heterogeneities appearing at technological processing were the subject of investigation. NLCs technique was compared with etching, x-ray and acoustic methods. It was demonstrated that suggested NLC technique is non-destructive in comparison with etching; more accurate in comparison with acoustic method, and as opposed to it, gives the possibility of integrated picture of examined surface parameters; and more expressive and cheep in comparison with x-ray method. NLC technique can be considered as an independent method that gives additional information about the characteristics of objects under investigation.

ANALYSIS AND SYNTHESIS OF COMPLEX SYSTEMS

43
The article deals with problems concerning state space structure of linear binary dynamic systems (LBDS) with stationary positions and closed circles with or without exogenous set sequence on the LBDS enter. The solving task appeared to be connected with specificity of algebraic LBDS state matrix eigenvalue spectrum state, geometric matrix eigenvector spectrum state and depends on index µ which this matrix belongs. The algorithm of LBDS state space structure analysis is offered. The example is given.
SIMULATION OF CURRENT SOURCE CIRCUIT FOR PUMPING OF SOLID-STATE LASERS Vyacheslav Togatov, Elena Solozhina, Rostislav Sidorov
50
Discharge maintenance circuit in solid-state lasers pump lamps is proposed. Mathematical model of electrical processes in circuit is developed. As a result, calculation technique of circuit components values was presented and its volt- ampere characteristic was created. Condition for getting maximal switching frequency value in the circuit was formulated.
MOBILE DIRECTIONAL SURVEY STATION FOR OPERATIVE SPATIAL BINDING OF THE UNDERGROUND OPENING BLASTING BOREHOLE GROUP Yakov Binder, Victor M. Denisov, Alexander Eliseenkov, Vladimir Rozentsvein
56
The paper describes the structure of the mobile directional survey station, algorithms and software used for continuous directional survey of the relative position of shaft trajectories of the underground opening blasting borehole group. New engineering solutions obtained at the station design are presented and analyzed. The results of the station field tests in ore excavation environment are presented.

MECHANICS AND MECHATRONICS

62
The mathematical model of dynamic system with three degrees of freedom, with nonlinear right members in the form of polynomials to the fourth degree from phase variables with constant and periodic parameters is considered. The system movement equations are reduced to an autonomous form by the method of polynomial transformations. The essential constants characterizing transient and determined oscillation modes are defined. The algorithm of a polynomial transformations method and algorithmic formulas of program realization are given.
64
Reducer design with wave gearing and flexible bearings which allows reducing additionally mass dimensions of electric drive parameters of shut-off pipeline armature is offered. 
67
Differential capacitive displacement pickup block diagram of a micromechanical gyroscope moving mass is considered. The problem of the gap between pickup electrodes and moving mass changes under the external influence is analyzed. The distinguishing feature of the pickup diagram is an additional signal which compensates changes of the gap. Experimental results of the displacement pickup model are presented.
RESEARCH OF THE MEMS GYRO DYNAMICS UNDER THE MECHANICAL IMPACTS Evstifeev Michail I., Eliseev Daniil P , Andrey Kovalev, Rozentsvein Dmitriy
72
Investigation results of the MEMS gyro sensing element dynamics are given. The dependence of device characteristics due to the inertial impacts and the value of instrumental errors, including static and dynamic unbalance and unequal stiffness are shown. Experimental tests of MEMS gyro on the centrifuge and the vibrating table have been executed and obtained analytical dependences have been confirmed.

MATERIALS TECHNOLOGY AND NANOTECHNOLOGIES

77
Intensities of small-angle X-ray scattering on oriented homogeneous cylinders have been obtained and collimation distortions were put into them. Initial scattering intensities have been reconstructed based on previously developed collimation converting methods and these intensities were compared with unaltered ones. It has been shown that relative error found in this case is a few percent that indicates the high quality of the collimation conversion. It has also been shown that introduction of statistical noise of 1% and 4% into distorted scattering intensity - which corresponds to real conditions of X-ray experiment - only slightly worsens coincidence between the original and reconstructed scattering intensities.
83
 We propose new design of a near-field terahertz probes based on pointed metal guards with diffraction gratings. Diffraction grating application allows enhancing efficiency of a near-field probe. The effect is based on the constructive interference of the wave diffracted on the grating and the wave directed to the tip of the probe. Design parameters analytical calculations of the terahertz probe with a diffraction grating and numerical modeling of electrodynamics by finite difference method are presented in the paper. The possibility of such probes fabrication based on electrochemical etching is experimentally considered. 
OPTICAL ANTENNA-PROBES BASED ON METALLIC NANOSHELLS Alexander Karaev, Andrey Denisyuk
87
  We investigate the possibility of using complex metallic nanostructures based on metallic nanoshells as near-field optical probes. Due to the effect of plasmon resonance such structures are able to effectively concentrate the energy of incident optical radiation to a subwavelength area. We present the results of numerical modeling of optical antennas electrodynamics performed by finite difference time-domain method. Also we investigate the ways of experimental fabrication of such nanostructures. 
ON TUNGSTEN PROBES STABILITY UNDER SPM OPERATION IN THE MODES OF DYNAMIC FORCE LITHOGRAPHY AND NANOINDENTATION Alexander Golubok, Alexander Pinaev, Andrey Feklistov, Chivilikhin S. A.
91
Stability of tungsten probe under the influence of longitudinal mechanical stress arising while scanning probe microscope operation in the modes of dynamic force lithography and nanoindentation is studied. Within the proposed theoretical model the expression for critical force of longitudinal compression is obtained, which exceeding leads to stability loss and probe bending. Experimental data obtained in the SPM with force interaction piezoresonance sensor, showing stable and unstable behavior of the W probe for NI and DSL surface of polycarbonate.

COMPUTER SYSTEMS AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES

MULTI-AGENT APPROACH TO THE UNINFORMED SEARCH TASK SOLUTION Bessmertny Igor Alexandrovich, Kirill Bulygin
98
The paper proposes an approach to search on decision tree, based on using a set of traffickers (agents), having swarm intelligence. The experience of each agent’s trip is to be stored and the best solutions build the route database, available for all agents. In contrary to the traditional search methods this approach gives satisfactory solutions pretty quickly. The proposed method could be useful if the traffickers are able to get and share the reached experience from/to the common online database. 
102
 The paper describes the problem of automatic test data generation for programs written in object-oriented language and containing exception handling structures. Advantages of genetic algorithms for searching the input data are described. An algorithm adapted for integration testing of object-oriented code is offered. 

LASER AND MEDICAL TECHNOLOGIES

INVESTIGATION OF OPTICAL RADIATION IMPACT ON BIOLOGICAL TISSUES AND LASER SYSTEMS ELEMENTS Belikov Andrei , Alexei Skripnik, Tatyana Strunina, Ksenia Shatilova
107
  The results of hard human teeth tissues treatment by YLF: Er diode-pumped laser pulses are presented for the first time. The pulse duration of YLF: Er laser with wavelength of 2,81 μm was 1,4 ms. The removal efficiency of enamel and dentin of human tooth, diameter, depth and aspect ratio of craters formed in the hard tissues of human tooth under the influence of this laser radiation are measured for the first time in vitro.

LASER SYSTEMS AND LASER TECHNOLOGIES

INVESTIGATION OF MULTIFREQUENCY LASING OF COMPACT DIODE PUMPED SOLID STATE LASERS IN MID-IR WAVELENGTH REGION Mikhail Inochkin, Nazarov Vyacheslav V, Dmitry Sachkov, Khloponin Leonid V, Khramov Valery Yu., Fedorov Nikita A
112
The results of investigation of lasing at wavelengths 2,66, 2,71 and 2,81 um in Er:YLF with pulse-periodical diode pumping at wavelength 0,98 um are presented. The strong dependence of lasing delays at separate lasing wavelengths from pumping pulse repetition rate was observed. Also the lasing termination at wavelengths 2,66 and 2,71 um with rising of pumping pulse repetition rate was observed. The new way of lasing spectrum variation was suggested.

COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN SYSTEMS

GRAPH-ANALYTICAL MODELS FOR CAD COMPUTING PROCESSES Anatoly Zykov, Alexander Bezroukov, Nemolochnov Oleg F., Polyakov Vladimir Ivanvich, Andronov Alexey V.
116
The article deals with graph-analytical models (GAM) for verification of computing processes in CAD. An example of complex cubic covering generation based on GAM for acyclic computing process is given; a task for test sets synthesis based on cubic coverings has been formulated.
PARALLEL STRUCTURES FOR COMPUTING PROCESSES CONTROL IN CAD Nemolochnov Oleg F., Anatoly Zykov, Polyakov Vladimir Ivanvich, Alexey Makedonskiy
121
The report deals with computing processes defined by a set of parallel structures, generated by suggested structuring method for software verification in CAD.

INFORMATION SECURITY METHODS AND SYSTEMS

DIGITAL CERTIFICATES AND SSL/TLS PROTOCOLS FOR DATA ENCRYPTION IN CLOUD COMPUTING Michael Becker, Terentiev Andrei O , Gatchin Yuri Armenacovich, Karmanovskiy Nikolay Sergeevich
125
Application of digital certificates and SSL/TLS protocols for data encryption in cloud computing is described in the article. Basic methods and features of digital certificates use for encryption of network connections are described. Approach to suitable method choice for different cloud computing systems is given.
131
Possible influences and impacts on detection tools are analyzed. Approach is proposed for taking into account the mentioned influences and impacts for correct choice of detectors structure parameters. Limitations of multi loops method are shown. Recommendations for organization of detectors structure are formulated.

NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN EDUCATION

137
The article considers formation problems of the communicative space on the basis of interactive learning technologies in the system of socio-humanitarian knowledge. The interest here is focused on the search of effective ways for both training and educational processes. Some types of educational activities with the use of Internet-resources and the opportunities of virtual space are analyzed. Their role in the development of creative potential of students and teachers is explained. It is shown that their use in the educational discourse helps to solve the most important problems the higher school is faced with.

ECONOMICS AND FINANCES. MANAGEMENT

142
The article is dedicated to the problem of publicity-publishing service promotion. The main effective promotion tools for given types of business service are described, practical recommendations for their better use are given. The emphasis is made on the improving of the enterprise image in the society.
145
The article deals with management task of mechanism optimization for accounting of service notes with request for modification of referenced data directories, arisen within the limits of realization of “Gazprom” Informatization strategy in the course of creation of information-operating system (IOS) SAP R/3 for subsidiary company “Gazprom transgas St. Petersburg”. Referenced data efficient control, being an information kernel of any IOS, demands from the accounting mechanism of service notes an irreproachable realization. The project urgency is caused by insufficient development of the existing accounting mechanism of service notes and a set of problems which initiators and executors of service notes during their official duties are faced with. The corporate distributed system of the service notes accounting has been developed for the effective task decision.

FROM THE HISTORY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNIQUE

150
The article contains formation problems of the optical industry in pre-revolutionary Russia. Principal difficulties of this industry development are investigated. State policy features in this area, dependence of national development from local needs in optical devices are stated. The article is aimed for everyone who is interested in history of national optical production and related social processes.
153
The article is devoted to the history of the Russian industry in the beginning of the twentieth century; the focus is unfolded in national historiography of the debate about the level of capitalism development in Russia. This discussion, not exhausted itself and experienced a political and ideological influence, helped to create a new system approach to the history of industry in Russia, the inclusion in the global context. Especially this contributes to a new theoretical basis for the concept of a "new direction". Achievements of the national historiography of the second half of the twentieth century are updated in connection with developing the modern research, in particular, the study of optical industry formation in Russia. 

BRIEF REPORTS

FLUORIDE OF NANOCERAMICS Korobeynikov Anatoliy Grigorievich, Gatchin Yuri Armenacovich, Tkalich Vera L., Dukelskiy Konstantin V
Properties of fluoride optical nanoceramics are considered and recommendations about their application are made.
MULTICHANNEL OPTICAL-ELECTRONIC SYSTEM FOR BUILDING DEFORMATION MONITORING Mikheev Sergei V., Alexander Usik, Ekaterina N. Kuleshova
159
Design of the multichannel optical-electronic deformation control system (OES) of industrial buildings is described. This system is a set of measuring television channels with overlapping angled fields and active marker control points (CP). The system provides for cross-linkages within the measuring feedback channels.
OUTPUT CONTROL FOR LINEAR PLANT WITH UNKNOWN PARAMETERS AND DYNAMICAL ORDER Bobtsov Alexey Alexeevich, Pyrkin Anton Alexandrovich
160
Output control approach for linear plants with unknown parameters and dynamical order of mathematical model is discussed. The new control law is proposed for uncertain systems that belong to more general class of assumptions compared with analogs.
162
Bank of check matrices for systematic noise-immune code is formed with the help of a nondegenerate matrix multiplicative component.
INVESTIGATION OF LASING PARAMETERS OF DIODE PUMPED SOLID STATE ERBIUM MICROLASERS Dubinkin Ilya N, Mikhail Inochkin, Nataliya Lonschakova, Nazarov Vyacheslav V, Dmitry Sachkov, Khloponin Leonid V, Khramov Valery Yu.
163
The passive Q-switching of diode-pumped Er:YLF microlaser was realized for the first time in the current work. With f Fe2+:ZnSe crystal use the giant pulses with energy 2.9 mJ and duration 30 ns at wavelength 2.81 um were observed.
DEVELOPMENT OF SMALL-SIZE SHOCK BENCH FOR MEMS TESTING Eliseev Daniil P , Valentin Serebryakov, Aleksey Chapurskiy
165
Development capability of small-size shock bench for MEMS testing on resistance to high impacts (thousands of G’s) has been justified; selection methods of fundamental and structural solutions have been designed. General features of developed bench have been calculated and ability to reach acceleration over than 10000 G on relatively low-speed collisions with acceptable impulse duration has been proved. Preliminary computations have shown that limits expansion of measured bench parameters and structure optimization could sufficiently increase level of reproduced acceleration in 3-4 times.
DETAIL PARAMETRIC MODEL CREATION IN CAD-SYSTEM MEDIUM Kulikov Dmitry D., Victor Babanin
167
The article deals with the possibility of CAD-systems use in the design of details parametric models. Macro is presented and allow developing the parametric models in CATIA V5 system. A method of saving information about the parametric model of the CAD-system in an automated design process is described.
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