Summaries of the Issue
FROM THE HISTORY OF LASER CREATION Belousova Inna M
The paper briefly describes the history of formation of a new science direction - quantum electronics, associated with the discovery of masers and lasers by scientists from the USA (Ch. Townes) and the USSR (N.G. Basov and A. M. Prokhorov). The world's first ruby laser designed by T. Maiman is described. Some historical events devoted to creation and research of lasers are given in which the author of the paper as well as research workers from Vavilov State Optical Institute, ITMO University and LOMO have taken direct part in the development of solid-state and gas lasers (helium-neon, photodissociation, CO2-lasers) and laser optical systems. Contribution of researchers from Vavilov State Optical Institute, LOMO and ITMO University to large-scale programs on development of lasers for laser nuclear fusion, laser weapons and “Phobos” program is shown. The paper deals in brief with new issues of development and application of lasers, mainly, within the project of laser orbital space station of the future, for the conversion of solar energy into laser radiation. Description of idea of solar energy transformation by fullerene-oxygen laser is presented. The patent for it has been taken out by Vavilov State Optical Institute. Developed fullerene-oxygen-iodine laser and laser structure models for industrial applications and solar energy conversion into laser radiation are described. Parameters for hypothetical laser-optical system of the future space station are given.
PHOTONICS AND OPTOINFORMATICS
DYNAMIC ESTIMATION FOR PARAMETERS OF INTERFERENCE SIGNALS BY THE SECOND ORDER EXTENDED KALMAN FILTERING Ermolaev Petr A
Data processing in the interferometer systems requires high-resolution and high-speed algorithms. Recurrence algorithms based on parametric representation of signals execute consequent processing of signal samples. In some cases recurrence algorithms make it possible to increase speed and quality of data processing as compared with classic processing methods. Dependence of the measured interferometer signal on parameters of its model and stochastic nature of noise formation in the system is, in general, nonlinear. The usage of nonlinear stochastic filtering algorithms is expedient for such signals processing. Extended Kalman filter with linearization of state and output equations by the first vector parameters derivatives is an example of these algorithms. To decrease approximation error of this method the second order extended Kalman filtering is suggested with additionally usage of the second vector parameters derivatives of model equations. Examples of algorithm implementation with the different sets of estimated parameters are described. The proposed algorithm gives the possibility to increase the quality of data processing in interferometer systems in which signals are forming according to considered models. Obtained standard deviation of estimated amplitude envelope does not exceed 4% of the maximum. It is shown that signal-to-noise ratio of reconstructed signal is increased by 60%.
IMPLEMENTATIONS AND PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS OF HYPERBOLIC METAMATERIALS Alena V. Shchelokova, Kapitanova Polina V, Belov Pavel Alexandrovich
The paper presents a review on hyperbolic metamaterials which are normally described by the permittivity and permeability tensors with the components of the opposite sign. Therefore, the hyperbolic metamaterials have the hyperbolic isofrequency surfaces in the wave vector space. It leads to a number of unusual properties, such as the negative refraction, the diverging density of photonic states, ultra-high rate of spontaneous emission and increasing of subwavelength fields. The presence of the unique properties mentioned above makes the concept of hyperbolic metamaterials promising for research in modern science and explains the attempts of research groups around the world to realize structures with hyperbolic isofrequency curve suitable for applications in different frequency ranges. Hyperbolic metamaterials realized as layered metal-dielectric structures, arrays of nanowires, graphene layers, as well as artificial transmission lines are considered in the paper. Possible practical applications of hyperbolic metamaterials are described including hyperlens able to increase the nanoscale objects; wire mediums applied for spectroscopy to improve the resolution and increasing the distance to the object being scanned. Hyperbolic metamaterials are noted to be extremely promising for applications in nanophotonics, including single-photon generation, sensing and photovoltaics.
OPTICAL DEFLECTOR CREATION FOR LASER THERAPEUTIC DEVICES Vladimir N. Baranov, Alexander S. Kachalin, Mikhail S. Bochkov
The paper deals with creation of optical deflector for management of laser radiation in physiotherapeutic devices. Design features and operation principles of electro-optical, optical-acoustic and mechanical deflectors, giving the possibility to carry out continuous or discrete scanning of a laser beam are shown. Operation mechanism of the mechanical type deflector on the example of domestic laser therapeutic scanners is described in detail. Application possibility in clinical practice for heating technique of the acupuncture points by volumetric scanning of tissues by the radiation of semiconductor lasers on wave lengths equal to 0,67 and 0,85 μm is investigated. Creation justification of the new type deflector is given. Comparison between stable and labile techniques of radiation is carried out. It is shown that more intensive warming up of a skin surface in acupuncture point projection is observed at volumetric scanning, rather than at planar scanning by laser beams. Temperature increase on a skin surface in projection of acupuncture points is detected at radiation in both the visible spectrum range (0,67 μm) and the infrared range (0,85 μm). It gives the possibility to apply this scanning method to thermal photo-activation of the point and to extend an existing arsenal of laser reflexology methods. The optical deflector is offered for medical industry, making it possible to carry out volumetric scanning of a laser beam and to facilitate the medical personnel’s work in laser therapy and reflexology consulting rooms.
AUTOMATIC CONTROL AND ROBOTICS
PROXIMITY DEGREE FOR SIMPLE AND MULTIPLE STRUCTURES OF THE EIGENVALUES: OVERSHOOT MINIMIZATION FOR FREE MOTION TRAJECTORIES OF APERIODIC SYSTEM Akunov Taalaybek A, Dudarenko Natalya Alexandrovna, Polinova Nina Alexandrovna, Ushakov Anatoly Vladimirovich
The paper deals with steady aperiodic continuous system, state matrix of which has a real spectrum of the eigenvalues which absolute value is less than unity. The latest authors’ works show that for such absolute values and multiple structure of eigenvalues on the free motion trajectories of the system by norm of the state vector the significant overshoot is detected, alternated by monotonous motion toward a state of rest. In order to minimize the overshoot value, it is proposed to modify the structure of the eigenvalues, transforming it into a simple one. The result of structure modification is the following: initial eigenvalue and shifted along the real axis of the complex plane to the left by a fixed value relative to the adjacent eigenvalues; each of them has unit multiplicity. Such modification gives the possibility to form the estimation of the proximity degree of eigenvalues simple structure to the multiple one. Moreover, it can be defined in a relative form, which guarantees the reduction of the above overshoot for the free motion trajectory. Results of computer experiments illustrate the issues of the paper.
TRUST MODEL FOR INFORMATION SECURITY OF MULTI-AGENT ROBOTIC SYSTEMS WITH A DECENTRALIZED MANAGEMENT Igor A. Zikratov, Zikratova Tatyana Viktorovna, Lebedev Ilya S
The paper deals with the issues on protection of multi-agent robotic systems against attacks by robots-saboteurs. The operation analysis of such systems with decentralized control is carried out. Concept of harmful information impact (attack) from a robot-saboteur to the multi-agent robotic system is given. The class of attacks is considered using interception of messages, formation and transfer of misinformation to group of robots, and also carrying out other actions with vulnerabilities of multiagent algorithms without obviously identified signs of invasion of robots-saboteurs. The model of information security is developed, in which robots-agents work out trust levels to each other analyzing the events occurring in the system. The idea of trust model consists in the analysis of transferred information by each robot and the executed actions of other members in a group, comparison of chosen decision on iteration step k with objective function of the group. Distinctive feature of the trust model in comparison with the closest analogue - Buddy Security Model in which the exchange between the agents security tokens is done — is involvement of the time factor during which agents have to "prove" by their actions the usefulness in achievement of a common goal to members of the group. Variants of this model realization and ways of an assessment of trust levels for agents in view of the security policy accepted in the group are proposed.
INFORMATION SECURITY ASSESSMENT FOR MULTI-AGENT ROBOTIC SYSTEM UNDER THE INFORMATION IMPACT Lebedev Ilya S, Zikratova Tatyana Viktorovna, Denis P. Shabanov, Viktor V. Chistov
The paper deals with the features of information security guaranteeing of the multi-agent robotic system with self-organizing behavior. The main attention is paid to the possibility of implementing information security threats on the level of interaction between the individual elements. The definitions “information impact” and “disorganization” are introduced for multi-agent robotic system. As a criterion for the system safety state assessment, probability is selected of number of items available at time t for required task execution of multi-agent robotic system, not suffering from the effects of the information impact. A method for estimating the probability of the multi-agent robotic system being in a safe state is proposed. The method is based on mathematical apparatus of Markov chains. Its distinction is the usage of functional dependencies for intensity information impact. The method gives the possibility to identify required characteristics of the individual elements in the early stages of development. Graphs of probability for secure system state of group of elements at different intensities of information impact by intruder and intensities are given, characterizing software and hardware capabilities of element output from the unsafe condition. The system behavior is modeled in the dynamics for different functional dependencies of the information impact intensity. An example of group consisting of four identical elements staying in a safe condition and attacking by three disorganizing elements is shown. Technique of obtaining numerical values for the intensities of information impact at successive instants is revealed.
TRAJECTORY CONTROL OF A SOLID BODY RELATIVE TO THE MOVABLE OBJECT Kapitanyuk Yuri A, Denis A. Khvostov, Chepinsky Sergey A
The paper deals with the problem of dynamic tracking of an external movable object. These problems arise when designing tracking control systems for unmanned aircrafts following ground movable objects. A dynamic model of a solid body in three-dimensional space is selected as a control object model. An external object is described by the kinematic model of a solid body on the plane. Smooth trajectory is defined as an implicit curve associated with an external movable object. The desired height of movement is selected separately. Relative dynamics of the plant and an external movable object is considered for the synthesis of control algorithm, and methods of differential geometric transformation of the original model to the task-oriented coordinate system are applied. The original problem is formulated in terms of a longitudinal motion and two orthogonal deviations after transformation. The main results are represented by task-oriented model of spatial movement and the corresponding nonlinear control algorithms. An example of solid body motion along a circular trajectory with respect to a given rectilinear motion of an external object is given for the illustration of the proposed method performance.
DEVELOPMENT OF TRAJECTORY CONTROL SYSTEM FOR THE OMNIDIRECTIONAL MOBILE ROBOT Kapitanyuk Yuri A, Kapitonov Alexander A, Chepinsky Sergey A
The article deals with a trajectory control system development for the omnidirectional mobile robot. This kind of robots gives the possibility to control separately each degree of freedom due to special design of the wheels, which greatly facilitates the solution of the spatial control tasks and makes it possible to focus directly on the development of algorithms. Control law synthesis is based on kinematic model of a solid body on a plane. Desired trajectory is defined as a smooth implicit function in a fixed coordinate system. Procedure of control design is represented by using a differential-geometric method of nonlinear transformation of the original model to the task-oriented form, which describes the longitudinal motion along a trajectory and orthogonal deviation. Proportional controllers with direct compensation of nonlinear terms are synthesized for the transformed model. Main results are represented by nonlinear control algorithms and experimental data. Practical implementation of considered control laws for the Robotino mobile robot by Festo Didactics Company is done for illustration of this approach workability. The cases of straight line motion and movement along a circle are represented as desirable trajectories, and the majority of practical tasks for mobile robots control can be implemented by their combination.
STABILITY OF LINEAR MULTIAGENT SCALAR SYSTEMS AND ITS DEPENDENCE ON CONNECTIVITY GRAPH Stanislav I. Tomashevich
Multiagent systems are now finding increasingly wide applications in various engineering fields such as energy, transportation, robotics, aviation and others. There are two main aspects to be focused on when organizing multiagent systems: the dynamics of the agents themselves and the ways of their interaction. This interaction is determined by the structure of information connections between agents. Thus, there are several key points of multiagent systems study: the dynamics of individual agents and shape of the information graph. Formation dynamics, in general, is determined by a set of properties of agents and connectivity graph. The paper deals with the relationship between dynamics of agents and Laplace matrix, which is used to set the graph connections. The present research is based on the results given in the known paper by A. Fax and R. Murray (IEEE Trans. AC, 2004). An illustrative example is given, and the application problem of studying the formation dynamics consisting of the group of quadrocopters is presented. Information exchange between agents is determined in the paper by means of the conventional set of graphs. The paper presents an interpretation of the stability conditions and the method of system performance improvement based on these conditions. Motion of quadrocopters group along the flight height is used as an example for methodology application. The simulation results demonstrate the basic dependencies between the information graph shape (and, consequently, the eigenvalues of the Laplacian, which describes this graph) and formation stability. Simulation and consideration of Nyquist diagram connection with the key points give an indication of the system stability and take steps to change the control laws. Necessary conditions for the formation stability are obtained on the basis of this research method. Research result makes it possible to create local control laws for agents to ensure the stability of motion in the selected structure of information connections. It is shown that the local control law can be adjusted by classical calculation methods ensuring prescribed stability margins in view of the Nyquist curve type and location of the closest points which should not be covered by it.
ADAPTIVE CONTROL OF TWO-LINK ROBOT MANIPULATOR BASED ON THE METHOD OF CONSECUTIVE COMPENSATOR Margun Alexei A., Zimenko Konstantin A., Bazylev Dmitry N, Bobtsov Alexey A., Kremlev Artem Sergeevich
The paper deals with the issue of control for a two-link robot manipulator under disturbances and inaccurately known parameters of the system. A method for adaptive independent control of the two-link robot manipulator based on the method of consecutive compensator is proposed. Adaptability is provided by adaptive adjustment coefficients of the consecutive compensator, and its independence consists in independent control of each link of the manipulator separately from the others. Meanwhile, non-linear effect of other links is considered as a limited external disturbance in the control channel. Dynamic equation of the manipulator was received by the Euler-Lagrange method, taking into account the effect of dynamics of manipulator engines. Since the proposed method has the simplicity of engineering implementation as compared to other adaptive methods of controlling manipulators, its usage on real objects in industry seems to be attractive. During the method simulation it was assumed that disturbances have the form of shifted harmonic signal. A series of simulations for a two-link manipulator system was conducted with the proposed controller. Simulation results confirm the effectiveness of this method in terms of external and internal disturbances. Comparison of this method with the PD controller was made. During the simulations, it was demonstrated that the proposed approach provides lower output error value than manipulator control using PD controller.
MATERIAL SCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGIES
Micro and nanostructure of petals and flowers of pink rose family having super hydrophobic phenomenon known as "lotus effect" was studied by optical and scanning probe microscopy. Quasi-ordered corrugated structure was found on the surface of the rose petals. It represents the ensemble of smoothed shape peaks like a lotus leaf structure. Structure saving during dehydration of rose petal (for 5 days) by drying in the air under normal conditions was found, the difference is apparent in the density of the arrangement and shape of the peaks, which in case of dehydrated rose petal have a smoother shape. Thus, the typical distance between the structure peaks of the native rose petal was 25-30 mkm, average peak height was 8 mkm, the peak width at half- height was about 15 mkm, peak top approximated by a sphere had a radius of about 2-3 mkm, the slope angle of the surface tangent to the peak axis was about 38-42º. Characteristic distance between the peaks for a dried rose petal is reduced to 20-25 mkm, the average peak height was 8 mkm, the width of the peak at half - height was about 18 mkm, peak top approximated by a sphere had a radius of about 5-6 mkm, the slope angle of the surface tangent to the peak axis was about 40-50º. A thin nanostructure of separate peak was examined on a dried petal, which consists of longitudinal bands of about 150-300 nm in height and about 2-3 mkm in width. While visualizing of rose stem leaves, a cellular structure with micro-pores and nanometer canals on the surface was discovered. The analysis of surface roughness on different parts of investigated objects was held. A single peak roughness was about 650 nm for a living rose petal, 300 nm for dried rose petal, roughness of the rose stem leaf was about 65-70 nm with sizes of scanned areas equal to 10x10 mkm. Studies were conducted on the integrated optical module Optem of Ntegra Aura microscope (NT-MDT, Russia) and on the scanning probe microscope NanoEducator LE (NT-SPb, Russia).
APPLICATION OF THE DIRECTED MUTATION TO CELLULAR AUTOMATA GENERATION PROCESSTikhomirov Andrey V, Shalyto Anatoly A.
Cellular automata are widely used for the simulation of discrete systems. However, in most cases creation of controlling cellular automata is done manually, empirically or by exhaustive search. A number of papers describe methods for automatic generation of finite automata and cellular automata using genetic programming. However, relatively simple genetic operators are used in these issues not taking into account the current test patterns and the population state that makes strong impact on the performance and convergence of these methods. This paper deals with the classical mutation operator applied to the process of cellular automata generation and directed mutation operator, designed to eliminate the above shortcomings. Both described operators are used in the adaptive genetic algorithm. The operator of directed mutation performs the analysis of the current chromosome, test pattern, and offers an optimal variant of mutation on the basis of the information received. The main differences and advantages as compared with the standard mutation operator are described. Testing on several training examples is performed; data about the resulting performance for genetic algorithm is presented.
EXPRESS METHOD OF BARCODE GENERATION FROM FACIAL IMAGES Kukharev Georgy A, Matveev Yuri Nikolaevich, Nadezhda L. Shchegoleva
In the paper a method of generating of standard type linear barcodes from facial images is proposed. The method is based on use of the histogram of facial image brightness, averaging the histogram on a limited number of intervals, quantization of results in a range of decimal numbers from 0 to 9 and table conversion into the final barcode. The proposed solution is computationally low-cost and not requires the use of specialized software on image processing that allows generating of facial barcodes in mobile systems, and thus the proposed method can be interpreted as an express method. Results of tests on the Face94 and CUHK Face Sketch FERET Databases showed that the proposed method is a new solution for use in the real-world practice and ensures the stability of generated barcodes in changes of scale, pose and mirroring of a facial image, and also changes of a facial expression and shadows on faces from local lighting. The proposed method is based on generating of a standard barcode directly from the facial image, and thus contains the subjective information about a person's face.
THREE-MOMENT BASED APPROXIMATION OF PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTIONS IN QUEUEING SYSTEMS Aliev Taufic Ismailovich
The paper deals with the problem of approximation of probability distributions of random variables defined in positive area of real numbers with coefficient of variation different from unity. While using queueing systems as models for computer networks, calculation of characteristics is usually performed at the level of expectation and variance. At the same time, one of the main characteristics of multimedia data transmission quality in computer networks is delay jitter. For jitter calculation the function of packets time delay distribution should be known. It is shown that changing the third moment of distribution of packets delay leads to jitter calculation difference in tens or hundreds of percent, with the same values of the first two moments – expectation value and delay variation coefficient. This means that delay distribution approximation for the calculation of jitter should be performed in accordance with the third moment of delay distribution. For random variables with coefficients of variation greater than unity, iterative approximation algorithm with hyper-exponential two-phase distribution based on three moments of approximated distribution is offered. It is shown that for random variables with coefficients of variation less than unity, the impact of the third moment of distribution becomes negligible, and for approximation of such distributions Erlang distribution with two first moments should be used. This approach gives the possibility to obtain upper bounds for relevant characteristics, particularly, the upper bound of delay jitter.
TECHNIQUE OF OPTIMAL AUDIT PLANNING FOR INFORMATION SECURITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Shago Fedor N, Igor A. Zikratov
Complication of information security management systems leads to the necessity of improving the scientific and methodological apparatus for these systems auditing. Planning is an important and determining part of information security management systems auditing. Efficiency of audit will be defined by the relation of the reached quality indicators to the spent resources. Thus, there is an important and urgent task of developing methods and techniques for optimization of the audit planning, making it possible to increase its effectiveness. The proposed technique gives the possibility to implement optimal distribution for planning time and material resources on audit stages on the basis of dynamics model for the ISMS quality. Special feature of the proposed approach is the usage of a priori data as well as a posteriori data for the initial audit planning, and also the plan adjustment after each audit event. This gives the possibility to optimize the usage of audit resources in accordance with the selected criteria. Application examples of the technique are given while planning audit information security management system of the organization. The result of computational experiment based on the proposed technique showed that the time (cost) audit costs can be reduced by 10-15% and, consequently, quality assessments obtained through audit resources allocation can be improved with respect to well-known methods of audit planning.
METHODS FOR QUALITY ENHANCEMENT OF USER VOICE SIGNAL IN VOICE AUTHENTICATION SYSTEMS Olha N. Faizulaieva, Igor S. Nevlyudov
The reasonability for the usage of computer systems user voice in the authentication process is proved. The scientific task for improving the signal/noise ratio of the user voice signal in the authentication system is considered. The object of study is the process of input and output of the voice signal of authentication system user in computer systems and networks. Methods and means for input and extraction of voice signal against external interference signals are researched. Methods for quality enhancement of user voice signal in voice authentication systems are suggested. As modern computer facilities, including mobile ones, have two-channel audio card, the usage of two microphones is proposed in the voice signal input system of authentication system. Meanwhile, the task of forming a lobe of microphone array in a desired area of voice signal registration (100 Hz to 8 kHz) is solved. The usage of directional properties of the proposed microphone array gives the possibility to have the influence of external interference signals two or three times less in the frequency range from 4 to 8 kHz. The possibilities for implementation of space-time processing of the recorded signals using constant and adaptive weighting factors are investigated. The simulation results of the proposed system for input and extraction of signals during digital processing of narrowband signals are presented. The proposed solutions make it possible to improve the value of the signal/noise ratio of the useful signals recorded up to 10, ..., 20 dB under the influence of external interference signals in the frequency range from 4 to 8 kHz. The results may be useful to specialists working in the field of voice recognition and speaker’s discrimination.
NETWORK SERVICES FOR DIAGNOSTIC OPTODIGITAL COMPLEX FOR TELEMEDICINE Dmitry S. Kopylov, Sergei N. Ustinov, Skshidlevsky Anton A, Lyamin Andrey Vladimirovich
The paper deals with a result of the network services development for the optodigital complex for telemedicine diagnostics. This complex is designed for laboratory and clinical tests in health care facilities. Composition of network services includes the following: a client application for database of diagnostic test, a web-service, a web interface, a video server and microimage processing server. Structure of these services makes it possible to combine set of software for transferring depersonalized medical data via the Internet and operating with optodigital devices included in the complex. Complex is consisted of three systems: micro-vision, endoscopic and network. The micro-vision system includes an automated digital microscope with two highly sensitive cameras which can be controlled remotely via the Internet. The endoscopic system gives the possibility to implement video broadcasting to remote users both during diagnostic tests and also off-line after tests. The network system is the core of the complex where network services and application software are functioning, intended for archiving, storage and providing access to the database of diagnostic tests. The following subjects are developed and tested for functional stability: states transfer protocol, commands transfer protocol and video-stream transfer protocol from automated digital microscope and video endoscope. These protocols can work in web browsers on modern mobile devices without additional software.
ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGIES
THERMAL SIMILARITY OF SPACE OBJECTS OF STANDARD CONFIGURATIONS Dzitoev Azamat M., Khankov S.I.
Thermal similarity of objects of various configuration is defined by equality of their stationary surface average temperatures in the Earth shadow that is equivalent to equality of their effective irradiance coefficients by own thermal radiation of the Earth. Cone, cylinder and sphere are chosen among standard configurations. Unlike two last figures, calculation of irradiance coefficient for conic object is the most difficult and contains a number of uncertainties. The method of calculation for integrated and effective irradiance coefficients of space object with a conic form is stated which is typical for fragments of spacecrafts. Integrated irradiance coefficients define the average thermal balance on a lateral surface of the cylinder and cone, and also full power balance on a sphere surface. Effective irradiance coefficients define a full falling specific stream of the Earth’s radiation on the whole surface of cylindrical or conic object taking into account their bases. By data about effective irradiance coefficients, the average stationary temperatures of space objects in the Earth shadow are defined, as well as on the trajectory part illuminated by the Sun taking into account two additional components of power balance – direct sunlight and reflected by the Earth. Researches were conducted in the height change range for an orbit from 200 to 40000 km depending on a tilt angle of the cylinder and cone axis relative to zenith-nadir line. Similarity conditions for the cylinder and cone are defined at equal ratio sizes of the figure height to base diameter.
THERMAL PROTECTION AND THERMAL STABILIZATION OF FIBER-OPTICAL GYROSCOPE INCLUDED IN STRAPDOWN INERTIAL NAVIGATION SYSTEM Gromov Dmitry S
It is known, that temperature perturbations and thermal modes have significant influence on the accuracy of a fiber-optical gyroscope. Nowadays, thermal perturbations are among the main problems in the field of navigation accuracy. Review of existing methods for decrease of temperature influences on the accuracy of a strapdown inertial navigation system with fiberoptical gyros showed, that the usage of constructive and compensation methods only is insufficient and, therefore, thermostabilization is required. Reversible thermostabilization system is offered, its main executive elements are thermoelectric modules (Peltier’s modules), heat transfer from which is provided by heatsinks at work surfaces of modules. This variant of thermostabilization maintenance is considered; Peltier’s modules and temperature sensors for the system are chosen. Parameters of heatsinks for heat transfer intensification are calculated. Fans for necessary air circulation in the device are chosen and thickness of thermal isolation is calculated. Calculations of thermal modes of navigation system with thermostabilization are made in modern software Autodesk Simulation CFD. Comparison of results for present and previous researches and calculations shows essential decrease in gradients of temperature on gyro surfaces and better uniformity of temperature field in the whole device. Conclusions about efficiency of the given method usage in view of accuracy improvement of navigation system are made. Thermostabilization provision of a strapdown inertial navigation system with fiberoptical gyros is proved. Thermostabilization application in combination with compensational methods can reach a necessary accuracy of navigation system.
MONOBLOCK EMITTERS FOR MELTING OF SYNTHETIC FATTY ACIDS Cherepanov Arkady N
The paper deals with usage of monoblock emitters for melting of synthetic fatty acids, which are delivered to plants in a solid state and are used in the production of detergents as liquids. In such emitters all lamps are arranged in a common case. Irradiation of the solid phase in the direction of the channel melting axis is done through an output quartz window. This method excludes the possibility of slowing down or stopping the process when one of the tubes is overheated. Halogen lamps are used as light sources, each one is placed in individual transparent body. Combined effect of thermal power supply and the light emission should provide a significant increase in the rate of the channel melting in the solid phase of the synthetic fatty acid. The results of evaluations for achievable rates of the channel melting in the solid phase of the synthetic fatty acids are presented. Melting of the channel with one meter depth can be reached in less than an hour when eight halogen lamps of 100 W power are used. To exclude the possibility of self-ignition of the liquid phase of synthetic fatty acid it is proposed to adjust the luminosity of the emitter and the surface temperature by selecting the number of lamps in the monoblock emitter cavity. The usage of cylindrical quartz tube as a case for monoblock emitter increases the diameter of the melting channel due to side effects of light on the solid and liquid phases.
MODELING AND SIMULATION
MULTI-AGENT APPROACH IN PREDICTION OF RELIABILITY PARAMETERS FOR ELECTRONIC MODULES Igor B. Bondarenko , Alexei I. Ivanov
The paper deals with design principles of the multi-agent system for prediction and calculation of reliability parameters of heterogeneous, diversified electronic modules. One-parameter models of failures distribution are less accurate and do not take into account the specifics of failures occurring in the base of modules. That’s why the issue has for an object the possibility to use two-parametric models of the timing intensity distribution of failures and determination of parameters for models on the basis of equipment test results on actuating factors. Prediction of reliability parameters for modules is carried out by means of numerous agents, united in a system. It includes heterogeneous agents carrying out information exchange with the user. Developed system structure is presented and the work of separate subsystems is described. The facility to add new agents-prediction techniques is available and they form a library. Prediction results depend on the chosen calculation method of reliability parameters on a specific enterprise, therefore, the developed prediction system use both standard distribution of reliability parameters and received by the method of group assessment of arguments. Selection of models for prediction is done on the basis of the calculated values of standard deviation. The output of work results is performed in a graphical form. Testing carried out on the data received during the electronic module checkout makes it possible to confirm the correctness and effectiveness of the developed approach. The developed system will give the possibility to reduce time for checkout and processing of testing results for complex electronic modules, especially manufactured at the enterprises of electronic industry for the first time.
SELECTION OF INFORMATION PROTECTION SYSTEM BY ENSURING THE COMPETITIVENESS OF ENTERPRISES Helen V. Popova
One of the problems concerning implementation of information protection systems is the choice of the optimal multi-criteria options, taking into account the stochastic nature of the interaction parameters and the usage of non-numeric, incomplete and inexact information. The application of the modified method of randomized aggregate indicators is considered. A model for the influence of information security on the change of the company competitiveness is proposed. The paper deals with determination of quantitative changes in the company competitiveness after implementation of the optimization variant of information protection system. An example of this model application at the particular enterprise is given. A comparison of planned and actual values is done. The validity of the criterion used in selecting the variants of data protection system is confirmed.
THE ARCHITECTURE OF THE REMOTE CONTROL SYSTEM OF ROBOTICS OBJECTS Shavetov Sergey V, Vedyakov Alexei A., Pyrkin Anton Alexandrovich
The paper deals with the architecture for the universal remote control system of robotics objects over the Internet global network. Control objects are assumed to be located at a considerable distance from a reference device or end-users. An overview of studies on the subject matter of remote control of technical objects is given. A structure chart of the architecture demonstrating the system usage in practice is suggested. Server software is considered that makes it possible to work with technical objects connected to the server as with a serial port and organize a stable tunnel connection between the controlled object and the end-user. The proposed architecture has been successfully tested on mobile robots Parallax Boe-Bot and Lego Mindstorms NXT. Experimental data about values of time delays are given demonstrating the effectiveness of the considered architecture.
THE SYSTEM OF TECHNICAL VISION IN THE ARCHITECTURE OF THE REMOTE CONTROL SYSTEM Shavetov Sergey V, Vedyakov Alexei A., Bobtsov Alexey A.
The paper deals with the development of video broadcasting system in view of controlling mobile robots over the Internet. A brief overview of the issues and their solutions, encountered in the real-time broadcasting video stream, is given. Affordable and versatile solutions of technical vision are considered. An approach for frame-accurate video rebroadcasting to unlimited number of end-users is proposed. The optimal performance parameters of network equipment for the final number of cameras are defined. System approbation on five IP cameras of different manufacturers is done. The average time delay for broadcasting in MJPEG format over the local network was 200 ms and 500 ms over the Internet.
VIRTUAL COGNITIVE CENTERS AS INTELLIGENT SYSTEMS FOR MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SUPPORT OF REGIONAL SECURITY Masloboev Andrey V
The paper deals with engineering problems and application perspectives of virtual cognitive centers as intelligent systems for information support of interagency activities in the field of complex security management of regional development. A research prototype of virtual cognitive center for regional security management in crisis situations, implemented as hybrid cloud service based on IaaS architectural framework with the usage of multi-agent and web-service technologies has been developed. Virtual cognitive center is a training simulator software system and is intended for solving on the basis of distributed simulation such problems as: strategic planning and forecasting of risk-sustainable development of regional socioeconomic systems, agents of management interaction specification synthesis for regional components security in different crisis situations within the planning stage of joint anti-crisis actions.
LASER SCANNING APPLICATION FOR DETECTION OF HUMAN POSTURE DISTORTION DURING MASS EXAMINATIONS Richard L. Voinov
Identification of human posture distortion in the early stages is an important task, which makes it possible to adjust the onset of the disease with just exercise and without the use of drugs. Existing methods for monitoring of human posture assessment do not meet modern requirements for speed of data acquisition and processing. Real time evaluation of human posture distortion in static and dynamic modes is possible by using a laser scanner. The paper deals with a three-dimensional laser scanning method for determining human posture. The device designed on the basis of its examination gives the possibility for real-time static and dynamic modes. Characteristic feature of the laser scanner is the presence of automated servo rotatable measuring head in two planes (vertical and horizontal) with a density of up to tens of measurement points per square centimeter.
CONCEPTUAL EXTENSION OF WEB SERVICES FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION Dergachev Alexander A
The paper deals with conceptual extension of Web services functional description in enterprise computer-based information systems. The following research is presented: three-level model of the request submission to Web services on a users’ namespace of computer-based information systems, namespace of formal operations and namespace of real Web services operations. The scope of developing research is optimization of relational database query execution plan, which is named as Web services execution plan. The main results of the work are: conceptual extension of Web services functional description; threelevel model of request submission to Web services.
TIMELINESS ASSESSMENT FOR IMPLEMENTATION OF THE CRITICAL REQUESTS IN TWO-LEVEL CLUSTERS Bogatyrev Anatoly Vladimirovich, Bogatyrev Vladimir A, Bogatyrev Stanislav Vladimirovich
The paper deals with probability evaluation for timely service of requests in real-time systems at the time less than permitted limit in a two-level cluster where each incoming request is served first, in one of the bottom-level nodes and then in one of the top-level nodes. To determine the probability that the stay of queries in a two-level cluster system is less than the permissible value, we break this time at equal intervals. We define the probability of not exceeding the delay on the first level, different number of intervals, calculating the probability that a delay on the second level will not exceed the remaining float for valid residence time of the query in the system. The proposed assessment can be used in the comprehensive reliability estimation of computational processes in two-level systems of cluster architecture, operating in real time.