Summaries of the Issue


 Basic problems of IR tomography of a hot gas on the example of a burner flame are formulated. The variant of two flame diagnosis regimes application is described: the active one (ON) – with included translucent source and the passive one (OFF) – without such source. Two integral equations are deduced concerning the absorption coefficient k and the Planck function B of a medium (by which it is possible to calculate the temperature profile of a medium Tg). In the case of axial symmetry and parallel scanning of flame, the equations are transformed into one-dimensional singular integral equations of Abel's type concerning k and B. For its numerical solving, the generalized quadrature method, data smoothing by splines and the Tikhonov regularization method are used. The software package for MatLab7 is developed. Experimental diagnosis results of the burner flame for some wave number ν in some flame cross-section were processed by means of MatLab7. Specific feature of the proposed technique is that it does not require a determination of k by a special measuring or through a database, for example, the HITRAN/HITEMP. The review is intended for students, postgraduate students, lecturers and scientific researches specializing in tomography, integral equations, ill-posed problems, applied mathematics and programming. 


The method of homodyne demodulation is widely used in interferometer fiber optic sensors. The paper deals with modeling results of output signal amplitude dependence on the amplitude of the measured phase-shift signal and phase modulation depth at the carrier frequency. Optimal phase modulation depth at the carrier frequency, which corresponds to the maximum value of the output signal, is defined as C=2.373 rad. Nonlinear character of the amplitude dependence of the output signal on the amplitude of the measured phase-shift signal is shown for the first time. Detailed mathematical analysis of obtained dependencies is given, which shows the opportunity for increasing of the linear part of the homodyne demodulation scheme amplitude response by widening the lowpass filter passband, favoring the input signal dynamic range increase. According to received results, for the measured phase-shift signal at frequency 500 Hz, low-pass passband increasing from 500 Hz to 1500 Hz leads to increasing of the size of the amplitude response linear part from 1.1 rad to 2.9 rad, i.e. input signal dynamic range increases up to 8.42 dB. Mathematical method of optimal low-pass passband calculating is proposed, providing the linearity of the demodulation scheme amplitude response in the specified range of input impact.
DEPENDENCE INVESTIGATION OF THE ANISOTROPIC SINGLE-MODE FIBER PARAMETERS ON A WINDING DIAMETER Aksarin Stanislav Mikhailovich, Arkhipov Sergey Vladimirovich, Varzhel Sergey V., Kulikov Andrey Vladimirovich, Vladimir E. Strigalev
Experimental setup has been designed that makes it possible to measure linear losses in optical fibers by the insertion loss method and h-parameter in anisotropic single-mode optical fibers by crossed polarizer method. The dependence of the single-mode anisotropic optical fiber linear optical loss and h-parameter on a winding diameter has been investigated. In the experiment, the winding diameter was changed with increment of 2.5 mm at a range of diameters from 3 to 50 mm and with increment of 0.5 mm at a range of diameters from 3 mm to 10 mm. The investigation has been carried out for the birefringent optical fibers with elliptical stressed core and GeO2 doping concentration of 4, 12 and 18 mol. %. On the base of analysis results recommendations for the allowable bending diameter of anisotropic single mode optical fibers used in interferometer fiber-optical sensors have been made. The measured parameters are the average values for the bent portion as control of even distribution of mechanical stress and spatial orientation of the elliptical shell in the samples during the present experiment was not carried out.
PHASE CHARACTERISTIC STABILIZATION OF THE FIBER-OPTICAL SENSOR SIGNAL IN TERMS OF TEMPERATURE CHANGE Aleynik Artem S, Ivan G. Deyneka, Makarenko Alexander A., Mekhrengin Mikhail Viktorovich, Vladimir E. Strigalev
Software simulation of the phase characteristic of fiber-optical gyroscope in Matlab has been done. The mechanism of the fiber optic gyroscope phase characteristic distortion has been described. It includes a speed change of reaching the normal operating mode, which in turn may be caused by changes in the optical power when the ambient temperature is changed. The search and theoretical analysis of existing methods of stabilization phase characteristic has been carried out (using infinite impulse response filter and software control of photo detector gain). As a result of this analysis it is revealed that the available methods don’t solve this problem because they don’t eliminate the root cause of the fiber optic gyroscope phase characteristic distortion. A new method for signal phase stabilizing in the fiber-optical sensor has been devised. The method is based on the imposition of the normalization differences for ADC readings carrying useful speed signal. The experimental study of delays in the BIM-3 device with temperature ranging from 25 to 29 °C has been carried out. Research results showed a decrease in the maximum amount of delay fourfold and reduce the range of delay variation from 280 to 7 ms with the imposition of normalization.
The paper deals with the influence of temperature instability of the radiation source on the output of the fiberoptic gyroscope (FOG) constructed under the scheme with feedback. It is known that the heating source generally leads to a change of scale factor values. The influence of the value of the central wavelength erbiumdoped broadband source on the value of the scale factor and the signal of FOG was calculated. At device rotation speed equal to 13°/h (the Earth rotation speed), the rate determination error should be dΩerr=7.2*10–5 (°/h)°K^(–1), but at a speed of 1 °/s the error will be dΩerr=1.9*10–5 (°/h)*K–1 . This result was compared with the experimental data obtained during heating source in a heat chamber at detecting the rotational speed of the Earth. In this case, the rate determination error was dΩerr=3*10^(–5) (°/h)*K–1, i.e. significantly greater than the rate calculated earlier for the scale factor. The additional experiment with the flip of a gyroscope plane on 180° showed that the detected error is associated with zero drift, not with changes in the scale factor. It is obvious that heat radiation source error in FOG indications (due to zero drift and changes in the scale factor) does not give the possibility to achieve the necessary precision FOG equal to 0.01 °/h (1σ) with even a slight change in temperature. Data obtained in this study necessitated the revision of the source and bringing into service a mechanism of thermal stabilization of its active elements.


The paper deals with a comprehensive study of the statistical characteristics for an ensemble of particles with radial symmetry boundaries. Dielectric rods and spheres are among these objects which are considered as building blocks of photonic crystals and all-dielectric metamaterials. The algorithm is based on the pattern recognition procedure by means of a transformation of the original image similar to the Hough transformation. The developed algorithm gives the possibility of providing information both on the diameters of particles and on the coordinates of their centers.
The results of comparative analysis of the stereo algorithms effectiveness for solving the problem of 3D model of human face reconstruction are presented. The methods of stereo vision relating to the three main classes – local, global and semi-global methods, are considered. The measure of differences between recovered depth map and the reference depth map obtained by a camera with a structured infrared illumination is proposed as the criteria for quantitative evaluation of the algorithms. During the comparison, transition to 3D space was carried out, calculation of the characteristics for the point cloud was performed, the quality of 3D surface restored with a depth map and performance of algorithms were considered. Selection of the best algorithm based on quantitative and qualitative evaluation of the algorithms was performed. The results can be used to improve the efficiency of stereo vision methods for identification of a person.
Widely applied computer vision methods are considered. It is established that these methods analyze images mainly on one of levels – pixel, contour, structural, etc. Drawbacks of single-level image representations restricting invariance properties of methods based on such representations and, in particular, resulting in reduction of capability to distinguish objects of different classes while solving recognition tasks are determined. Possibility to overcome these restrictions with the help of hierarchical representations is justified. Ways of developing a synthesis theory for such optimal hierarchical image analysis systems, with minimal reduction of probability of the best higher-level hypothesis selection caused by intermediate decisions are proposed. Minimization of approximation error for posterior probability distribution for higher-level hypotheses by accounting for the only best hypotheses of lower levels is proposed to perform on the base of introducing feedback connections between levels and adaptive selection of hypotheses of all levels with maximization of their mutual probability.
During signals formation in spectral optical coherent tomography, spectral interference fringes suffer the frequency modulation because of the frequency dependence on the wavelength due to a medium dispersion influence, which leads to the spectrum broadening of the detected signal and decrease of spectral interferometer resolution. The paper deals with a method of dynamic data processing in spectral interference based on the discrete linear Kalman filtering algorithm with dispersion influence compensation in media for depth resolution in investigating of optical-inhomogeneous partially-transparent objects. The algorithm is an identification of parameters (amplitude and initial phase) of harmonic components of interference signal with a fixed set of frequencies by linear discrete Kalman filter. Information application about the initial phase gives the possibility of dispersion influence compensation and avoiding unwanted artifacts, which improves resolution of spectral optical coherent tomography. Processing results of 1D and 2D optical coherent tomography signals on an investigation example of randomly inhomogeneous scattering media in biomedicine are presented.


INTERVAL ESTIMATION SYSTEM DESIGN FOR TESTOSTERONE HORMONE DYNAMICS MODEL Efimov Denis V., Kremlev Artem Sergeevich, Kharkovskaia Tatiana A, Stanislav Chebotarev
The paper deals with the interval observer design for nonlinear parameter-varying systems under assumption that the vector of scheduling parameters is not available for measurements. It is shown that the observer makes it possible to derive the area of system states estimates, which is guaranteed to contain the state value at a given time. The efficiency of the proposed approach is demonstrated by computer simulation of testosterone hormone dynamics system.
METHOD OF INTERFEROMETER SIGNAL PHASE MEASUREMENT Miroshnichenko G.P. , Ivan G. Deyneka, Pogorelaya Daria Andreevna, Shuklin Philipp Alexandrovich, Smolovik Mikhail A
Method of interferometer signal phase measurement for signal processing of fiber-optical phase sensors is proposed. The method permits to compensate an interferometer signal frequency temperature drift by generation a three-stroke form of modulating sawtooth waveform. The linear least-squares method having a single solution is suggested. Results of numerical experiment are given, confirming the accuracy of the designed phase measuring method, and numerical estimates of temperature phase drift are given, set by modulator, and a level of temperature stability, which provide phase measurement order of magnitude equal to 10^(-8) rad.
Despite the large number of publications on this subject, there are no currently analytical methods of calculation that can evaluate the temperature changes of the space object, moving on the extended elliptical orbit. Calculation method of the transient temperatures of the isothermal spherical shell space object, moving on the elliptical orbit, is suggested. It includes the calculation of time dependence of the space object altitude above the Earth based on the solution of the equation of motion on the elliptical orbit. Irradiance coefficients are calculated at each time point and are used for calculation of heat fluxes from the Earth and solar radiation reflected by the Earth and falling on the object. Then calculation of the transient heat balance is done including heat flux from the sun and average surface temperatures. Calculation results of the transient thermal condition of the space object for specific characteristics of orbit and specific heat, depending on thickness of the wall, is presented as an example. The proposed mathematical model is easy and convenient for calculations. The proposed algorithm can be extended to the other convex design configuration.


The paper deals with a mathematical model of an indicator two-axis gyro of a gravity meter sensor in the gimbals. Fiber - optic gyroscopes are used as a gyro sensor. The scheme of gyro modeling errors is given. The key advantages of fiber- optic gyroscopes, as compared with gyroscopes with a mechanical carrier of angular momentum, are highlighted. Mathematical model of the gyro is received as a combination of direct drive servo system and the scheme of indirect accelerometer correction. Correction scheme is a short-period gyro-vertical, damped by high-speed measurements using consumer equipment satellite navigation system. Time constant value of the vertical is determined by curve fitting method of local spectral density error for fiber- optic generator against a background of accelerometer errors and consumer equipment satellite navigation system. The contribution of the sensor errors of stabilization system to the overall uncertainty is defined, and the requirements for them are formulated.


Enterprise Architecture Management (EAM) is a growing area nowadays, which supports enterprise transformations and provides holistic approach to business management. ORG-Master is a Russian EAM tool with 15 years history, which is successfully applied in industry. The current paper deals with new capabilities of ORG-Master modeling language applied in the last software version: more strict typification and specified pragmatics.
The paper deals with the digital circuits for temperature control of VLSI-chips. The basic approach is temperature measurement on the basis of a typical logic gate delay. Various alternatives of gate delay measurement are applied. Advantages and limitation of sensors on the base of ring oscillators are presented: high accuracy and speed of measurement, but small localization and the bad repeatability of parameters at Field Programmable Gate Array implementation, high working frequencies, power consumption and level of an electromagnetic emission. It is offered to use the alternative circuit of the measuring unit implementing the statistical Monte-Carlo method. The circuit main principle is selection of delay areas of repetitive pulses fronts at their propagation through a logical gate and counting a share of casual testing pulses hits in these areas relative to all time of measurement. The propagation delay of a logical gate is converted in temperature value in such a way. Research results of the offered circuit have confirmed the efficiency of gate propagation delays measurement circuits by the method of Monte-Carlo for determination of a chip temperature, including local overheating near power-intensive functional blocks: processors, memory blocks and others. The offered circuit has shown the accuracy of temperature measurements not worse than the circuit based on ring oscillator - at 1,5K level, but has smaller complexity and approximately 25 % less square occupied by a chip. Important singularity is the possibility of transfer and cloning of the measuring block in various points of a chip without requalification necessity that provides simplicity of its application in Field Programmable Gate Array based systems.
The paper deals with principles of network organization for on-board digital computing system. The most common network topology today in practice, “duplex star” and “common bus”, do not meet the basic requirements of a network organization, presented for computing systems for advanced aircraft in accordance with the concept of integrated modular avionics. A new technical decision for building a fault-tolerant computing system based on the use of mixed topology, which combines elements of two well-known topologies – “fully connected net” and “duplex star”, is offered in the paper. This solution can improve the performance quality of computing system. The paper focuses on the reliability of a computing on-board system, built on the principle of mixed topology with different methods of tasks assignment to available computing resources. The result of the practical implementation of the proposed topology of the on-board digital computing system is its structure, introduced in a real practical development of the aviation industry.
The urgency of the development for the group of field geophysical devices of new generation is justified. Generic functional requirements for these devices from the industry are summarized. A unified platform for their creation is described. The advantages of its application are shown. The development experience of the field radiometer as the first field instrument created on the principles of a single instrument platform is described.
The paper deals with a problem of large information systems functioning that can process large volume of heterogeneous information at the enterprise. The structure of adaptive information system with the dedicated major segments: administrative and service-agent segment, data operating segment, intellectual segment is developed. The features of the system components are shown. The agent component structure of the adaptive information system is developed. The main components of the agent interaction model are marked out: coordination agent, adaptation agent, knowledge base agent, database agent, user agent for development of agents interaction process model in multi-agent adaptive information system by colored Petri nets. Main agent states, used in tasks processing are described. Model operation at different stages, analysis of the main system properties is studied. Analysis gives the possibility to reveal the most congested parts. Users’ statistics of the system tools usage at the enterprise for getting probabilities is collected. The processes of system mechanisms adaptation and interface are developed and studied on the basis of the obtained statistical data. Application of the algorithm elements makes it possible to reduce time spending by the employees at the enterprise for finding necessary elements and tools, to simplify the process of users’ interaction with the system, to modify the system work at high loads with copying the actuating agents.


The paper deals with experimental research results of silver islet films effect on the aggregation and optical properties of pseudoisocyanine dye molecular layers. Samples were prepared by metal evaporation on the dielectric substrate in a high-vacuum chamber and were coated with molecular layers by means of spin-coating technique. Morphology of islet films was investigated by scanning electron microscope. Absorption spectra of the samples were recorded on a spectrophotometer. Analysis of the component composition of molecular layers with Ag nanoparticles has shown the presence of the absorption band, which was not observed in the absorption spectra of the thin film and an alcohol solution of pseudoisocyanine. A new band identification was carried out by the absorption spectra of pseudoisocyanine aqueous solution and the spectra of thin film made of the aqueousalcoholic solution with addition of NaCl. It was established that the resulting absorption band corresponds to the J-aggregates. Thus, in the presence of silver nanoparticles the degree of pseudoisocyanine molecules aggregation is increased. The maximum of optical density of the molecular layer increases by 20 times.
The paper deals with the first experiment results on research of a synthesis method for nanoparticles doped by erbium. Using a low-temperature synthesis (180 ° C) in the anhydrous solvent instead of the standard synthesis method in the aqueous medium with the following high temperature processing (700 ° C) gives the possibility to avoid nanoparticles coagulation and keep their initial nano size and, therefore, to obtain transparent nanocomposite material suitable for photonics applications. Comparison of experimental data (absorption and luminescence spectra) with the literary one, confirms the receipt of the erbium oxide nanocrystals.
The paper deals with a new method of particle manipulation based on electrostatic interaction between objects charging under the beam of a scanning electron microscope. The method gives the possibility for well-controlled picking up, transportation and dropping off micro- and nanoparticles and also for visualization of the process and manipulation result in real time on electron images. Precise manipulation of Al2O3, WO3 and tungsten particles with sizes ranging from 50 nm to 1 micron by a metallic tip charged under the electron beam is experimentally demonstrated. A theoretical model is created, based on the assumption that the dielectrophoretic force by the charged metallic tip pulls the particles whereas the Van-der-Waals force retains them on a substrate or on other particles. The given method can be used in micro- and nanoparticle assembly, fabrication of specialized probes for scanning probe microscopes and estimation of particle-substrate and particle-particle interaction forces.
OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF PbSe QUANTUM DOTS FORMED IN FLUORINE PHOSPHATE GLASS Kolobkova Elena V, Alexandra Polyakova, Albert Abdrshin, Alexander Trofimov, Nikonorov Nikolay V. , Vladimir A. Aseev
The paper deals with characteristics of PbSe quantum dots formation, deposited in fluorine phosphate glasses of the Na2O - P2O5 - Ga2O3 - A1F3 - ZnO based on data analysis of differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction and spectral-luminescent properties. The sizes of synthesized quantum dots are calculated (4-9 nm). Iintense luminescence was observed in the region from 500 to 1500 nm for all sizes of quantum dots. It is suggested that the luminescence band (575 nm) appearing at short heat treatment times is associated with the luminescence of PbSen and Sen clusters, where n = 2,3,4. Further increase of heat treatment time results in a shift of luminescence band maximum up to 1500 nm.
SELF-ORGANIZATION OF LEAD SULFIDE QUANTUM DOTS OF DIFFERENT SIZES Ushakova Elena Vladimirovna, Golubkov Valery Viktorovich, Litvin Alexander Petrovich, Parfenov Peter Sergeevich, Baranov Alexander Vasilievich
The paper deals with self-organization process of semiconductor lead sulfide nanoparticles with a luminescence in the range of 0.8–2 mkm. Corresponding diameters of nanoparticles determined by X-ray analysis lie in the range of 2.5–8 nm. Nanostructures are fabricated by evaporation of solvent on a glass substrate and by embedding in a porous matrix. The process of self-organization on the substrate and in the matrix is studied by means of X-ray structural analysis. It is shown that self-organized nanostructures are ordered structures consisted of close-packed nanoparticles. A formation of spatial regulation of nanoparticles leads to the appearance of specific maxima in the angular dependence of X-rays scattering, which position is determined by the period of the structure. It is found that the type of this regulation is independent of the size of nanoparticles, type of substrate and matrix. It is shown that a distance between nanoparticles centers in obtained structures depends linearly on its diameter, and the average value of the slope coefficient of size dependence is (1,2±0,1).


The paper deals with an algorithm for local minimization of the bured vias number on a multilayer printed circuit board. The approach is based on the topology analysis in the vicinity of an adjacent vias pair. It considers the possibility of rerouting of wires, which impede the transfer of a specific wire on a specific layer. Cases with not adjacent vias (there is a planar contact or a branch point without a via on the path from one via to another) are reduced to the case where the vias are adjacent. Some shortcomings of consistent wire routing are analyzed. The shortcomings of methods of minimizing of the vias number based on the wire fragments transfer to another layer if the transfer is carried out without conflicts are considered too. The algorithm is implemented and applied in the Russian system of computer-aided design TopoR. Comparison results of several printed circuit boards routing are presented using the algorithm and not using it. The proposed algorithm additionally reduces the number of vias by 3 – 11% in test examples of multilayer printed circuit boards.
FORMATION AND DISPLAY PRINCIPLES FOR AN ARRAY OF GEOINFORMATION DATA BY MEANS OF ONBOARD DISPLAY SCREEN Paramonov Pavel P, Kostishin Maksim O. , Zharinov Igor Olegovich, Nechaev Vladimir A., Sergey Sudarchikov
The paper deals with the problem of a workstation creation for preparation, storage and loading of geoinformation data and flight plan to the onboard system of cartographic information. The principles of geoinformation data formation are analyzed, a unified format is suggested for data and instructions storing, which together constitute the array of cartographic information. The description of the software component, part of the workplace, is given. A new structure of the onboard system of cartographic information is created, notable for integrated into a single embodiment design. Suggested technical solutions have been tested in practice.


The necessity to improve the quality of products by optimizing micro geometry of their surfaces is proved. A solution to the problem of technological support for corrosion resistance of engineering products based on the use of non-parametric method of surface micro-geometry evaluation and monitoring is suggested. The parameters of processing technology are given, making it possible to provide the best possible surface roughness of the D16T alloy parts with minimum value of corrosion penetration depth into their surface.


The paper deals with users’ identification and authentication in the web-space. A method for distinguishing of two or more users accessing the Internet by one common computer and browser based on the analysis of their surfing history is proposed. The method is based on sites identification, which the user visits frequently and regularly, and their hierarchical clustering. Analysis of surfing history for more than 260 000 users, collected by cookies, which are stored on their computers, was conducted for method verification. High percentage of correct users’ identification was achieved.


The paper deals with theoretical problems of national innovative system formation and the author's definition, which noted the evolutionary character of its development as a subsystem of the economic system, realization of economic interests as an activity goal and financing as an indispensable condition for innovation. The main principles of the national innovation system are defined and proved: integrity, focus, optimality, hierarchy, coordination of actions between all elements of the system and evolutionary development. The structure and hierarchy of function levels is shown, core and supporting; functions of the financial component and its role in ensuring of innovation development are defined. The structure of national innovation system of Russia is presented with consideration of its development peculiarities. According to the author, it is divided into the Federal and regional (along a vertical); into the subsystems according the types of activity depending on the nature of financing source (along a horizontal), as well as organizations within NIS, realizing the creation, commercialization and financing of innovations, personnel training.


The paper deals with optimization problem of the learning process for adults. A theoretical analysis of the key individual psychological characteristics that influence the perception of broadcast knowledge into the learning process is done. The models of E. K Lindemann, D. Kolb, C. Rogers making it possible to create new conditions for better assimilation of knowledge are considered. It is shown that education of adult students significantly differs from the training of young specialists. It is noted that when planning training programs it is appropriate to take into account the different learning styles of listeners. The dominant learning style of a listener determines the characteristics of the learning process and the human response to specific techniques and efforts of the teacher. The results of a comprehensive study are given, the aim of which was to determine the best organizational and pedagogical conditions for training of the personnel managers. The total sample was consisted of 135 people. The duration of the training program is 540 hours. Results were analyzed and conclusions were done about the feasibility of interactive teaching methods application. Correlation analysis showed that the use of these training methods forms a positive relationship with the development of such indicators of management capacity as an in-depth understanding of managerial work, the ability to train and solve situational problems in the management of personnel.


AUTOMATED HARDWARE-SOFTWARE SYSTEM FOR CONTROL OF EXTENDED RADIATION SOURCES Gorbunova Elena V., Korotaev Valery Viktorovich, Peretyagin Vladimir Sergeevich
The paper deals with creation results of automated hardware-software system for monitoring and certification of parameters and characteristics of multi-element radiation sources based on emitting diodes. The presented system is designed for simultaneous determination of the spectral characteristics and color parameters of radiation sources in three-dimensional space, and the uniformity of illumination or irradiation area analysis in the wavelength range from 200 nm to 1100 nm.
The paper deals with texture usage model based on texture views and limitations of the current graphics APIs (Direct3D 11.2 and OpenGL 4.4) in case of dynamic texture compression application. The proposed approach aims on improving of dynamic texture compression by eliminating the copying step between compressed and uncompressed buffers. That copying step is enforced by existing APIs. The results of testing performance of dynamic texture compression are also given.
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